Core HR Knowledge


PHR (Core HR Knowledge) Flashcards on Core HR Knowledge, created by jkim05 on 18/01/2015.
Flashcards by jkim05, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jkim05 over 8 years ago

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What is needs assessment & needs analysis? Methods for obtaining information necessary to achieve goals
What are the 7 steps for conducting a needs assessment? 1.) describe objective 2.) define current situation 3.) conduct a gap analysis 4.) set priorities 5.) Investigate and develop options 6.) evaluate options & determine budget 7.) recommend solutions
What is a contract? A legally enforceable agreement between two are more parties.
What is a third party contract? Service provided by outside vendor i.e. Temp agency
What does RFP stand for? Request for Proposal
What are the steps for developing an RFP? 1.) needs assessment 2.) develop RFP 3.) create standard proposal format 4.) evaluate proposals 5.) select a vendor 6.) negotiate contract 7.) execute agreement 8.) evaluate project
What's the general format of an RFP? 1.) organization description (ees, loc, etc.) 2.) project overview summarizing needs 3.) project details (deadlines, format, etc) 4.) project description (specs) 5.) contact person
How to vendors format RFP responses? 1.) executive summary (qualifications) 2.) vendor qualifications (references) 3.) project mgmt plan (supply) 4.) project team 5.) roles and responsibilities 6.) delivery schedule 7.) pricing information
Name examples of top-down communication Intranet Public address system announcements Posters Newsletters Individual letters to employees Flyers Bulletin board postings
Name examples of bottom-up communication Open door policy All hands meetings Staff meetings Brown bag lunches One on one meetings Email Webcasts
What are the two types of personnel documentation requirements? 1.) personnel employment records, tax documents, benefits records 2.) documentation for employment actions
What are the steps in documenting performance issues? 1.) verbal warning 2.) first written warning 3.) final written warning *4.) decision making day *5.) suspension 6.) termination * optional steps, per company
What does a verbal warning entail? - specific examples of unacceptable performance/behavior - further disciplinary action warning - written note with time/date of warning, name of employee, discussion points, agreements of future changes
What does a first written warning entail? - memo describing steps taken - performance problem description - steps to avoid consequences - agreements made for future - employee signature
What does a final written warning entail? Repeat of first written warning with a statement strongly warning possible termination if issues are not corrected
What does a decision making day entail? - send employee home with pay for a day to consider commitment to making changes. - if they want to change they will return the next day. - if not they will not return and will be immediately terminated
What does suspension entail? - written document with all previous steps, reason for suspension, and statement of non-conformance will result in termination
What does termination entail? Termination with legal review of any documents provided to employee
What was Eduard Lindeman's theory on adult learning? He believed that adults learned better in small groups where knowledge could be shared based on life experience.
What is Andragogy? Education in which the learner participates in decisions about what will be taught and how it will be delivered.
What is Pedagogy? Education in which the teacher decides what will be taught and how it will be delivered.
What did Malcom Knowles do to expand on Lindeman's learning theory? He identified characteristics that set adult learning apart from child learning.
According to Knowles' theory, what are the 5 characteristics of Andragogy? 1.) Self concept - change from dependency to autonomy 2.) Experience - wealth of knowledge 3.) Readiness to learn - increasing interest in relevant info 4.) Orientation in learning - apply information 5.) Motivation to Learn - personal needs and desires than expectations of others
What are the 3 types of learners? 1.) Auditory - recite phone # and memorize 2.) Visual - write down phone number 3.) Tactile / Kinesthetic - air dial phone number to memorize
What motivational theory purports that needs begin with basic requirements and progresses to higher level needs? Abraham Maslow's The Hierarchy of Needs - 1954
What are Maslow's 5 levels of need? 1.) Physiological - basic necessities of life 2.) Safety - ensure safety 3.) Social - desire for acceptance 4.) Esteem - recognition 5.) Self-actualization - creativity and fulfill potential
What theory purports that behavior can be changed through behavior modification? B.F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning - 1957
What are the 4 intervention theories in Operant Conditioning? 1.) Positive reinforcement - provide pleasant response 2.) Negative reinforcement - remove unpleasant response 3.) Punishment - provide unpleasant response 4.) extinction - discourage behavior by cease to reinforce
What motivational theory provided the basis for job enrichment in which increased task significance provides challenging work and growth opportunities? Frederick Herzberg Motivation/Hygiene Theory - 1959
What are motivation and hygiene factors according to Herzberg? Motivation: change nature of work to challenge and develop talents - long term benefit Hygiene: motivation allows for people to avoid unpleasant experiences - short term benefit
Who expanded on Maslow's work on motivation and with what theory? Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y 1960
How did McGregor expand on Maslow's work? Identified two management approaches: 1.) Theory X - view of ees as lazy and uninterested and need constant direction 2.) Theory Y - believes ees given the opportunity will seek out work if work is satisfying
Which motivational theory purports that experience acquired motivates people to achieve in Achievement, Affiliation, and Power? David McClelland Acquired Needs Theory - 1961
Please explain Achievement, Affiliation, and Power in McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory. Achievement: need frequent feedback, prefer to work alone or those with similar goals. Affiliation: Need acceptance in work group Power: Look for personal power or institutional power - effective managers
Which motivational theory purports that individuals measure return on investment and lose productivity when they feel they are not receiving as much as they put in? J. Stacey Adams Equity Theory - 1963
Which theory purports that individuals expect awards and calculates effort required to receive such award? Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory - 1964
What words does Vroom use to describe his theory? Expectancy: motivation starts with employees assessing their capabilities Instrumentality: Ask what's in for me? Valence: Is the reward worth the effort?
What other theory builds on Maslow's work purporting that people can work on different needs at the same time? Clayton Alderfer ERG Theory - 1969
What is the ERG stand for? Existence: physiological and safety needs Relatedness: social needs Growth: self-esteem & self-actualization
What theory did Thomas Carlyle suggest to define leaders as individuals born with innate qualities? Great Man Theory
What are the drawbacks of trait theories? - Different leadership traits identified - Research showed traits did not differ between leaders & followers - Didn't explain how leaders were successful in diff situations using diff methods
What defined behavioral theories for leadership? Leadership could be taught as long as they had the right information. 2 defined behaviors: 1.) structural elements of job 2.) ability to stand up for employees
What were the flaws of behavioral theories? Why did a behavioral aspect work in one situation but not others?
What did Situational Theories set out to explain about leadership? How are leaders effective in different situations?
Which situational theory identifies 9 levels to measure concern for people and concern for production? Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid 1968
In Blake Mouton's grid, what do the lowest and highest extremes indicate? Leaders at lowest extreme show little no concern for people or production. Highest extreme leaders show maximum concern for both production and people and are the most effective.
What situational theory was developed by Robert House? Path Goal Theory 1971
What situational theory purports that a leader can impact the behavior of a group by establishing goals and providing direction on reaching those goals? Robert House Path Goal Theory - 1971
What are the 4 leadership styles described by the Path-Goal Theory? 1.) Directive - specific orders 2.) Supportive - encouragement 3.) Participative - group decision making 4.) Achievement - establishes difficult goal and encourages group to solve
Which situational theory purports leadership as determined by maturity levels of followers? Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard Hersey-Blanchard Theory - 1977
What does maturity in Hersey Blanchard Theory mean? Psychological maturity (aka motivation) Job task maturity (aka level of exp)
What are the 4 styles of leadership identified in the Hersey-Blanchard Theory? 1.) Telling - leader gives direction to inexp. 2.) Selling - some exp, some direction 3.) Participating - exp but need support to encourage them to act on their own 4.) Delegating - leader identifies goals and followers accountable for results.
What theory was developed to address the shortcomings of situational theories and by whom? Contingency Theory Fred Fiedler
What method does Fiedler use to assess the leader's style and how does it work? Least preferred co-worker scale Identify the co-worker past or present that was most difficult working with and rate 1-8 different measures. A least preferred coworker score (LPC score) is measured. A high score indicates greater concern for people than tasks and low is vice versa.
What are the 3 aspects defined by Fiedler's Contingency Theory? 1.) Leader-Member Relations - relationships btw leader/member is key in determining influence 2.) Task Structure - highly structured jobs provide a leader with greater influence 3.) Position Power - leader's power to assign and punish allows for greater chances of success.
Name the 6 types of leadership styles. 1.) Authoritarian/Directive 2.) Democratic 3.) Laissez-faire 4.) Coaching 5.) Transactional 6.) Transformational
Describe when Authoritative/Directive leaders are most effective. Effective in situations that require immediate action or are life threatening. Best management style in times where productivity is in high need.
Describe when Democratic leaders are most effective. Most effective in environments of highly skilled professional employees who are self-motivated and accomplish tasks on own. When relationships in work environment are important, this is the best management style.
Describe a Laissez-faire leadership style. Leaders that allow group members to operate with no direction or guidance. Highly motivated employees work best in this environment but can lead to lowest level of productivity.
How does a Coaching style leader lead his/her team? Work with group members to develop skills and abilities to operate independently.
What is the focus of Transactional Leadership? Offers reward in exchange for achieving company goals. Transactional leaders manage by exception either by seeking out areas where rules aren't followed and making corrections by taking action when goal isn't met.
What is the focus of a Transformational Leadership? Building relationships in the group to achieve company goals. Leaders act as role models and inspire excellence in the group, stimulate new ideas, and perspectives.
What is Project Management? The process of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing an assignment that is temporary in nature.
What are the 5 phases of a project life cycle? 1.) Initiation 2.) Planning 3.) Executing 4.) Controlling 5.) Closing
What happens during the Initiation phase of project management? Project requests are evaluated and selected for implementation. Stakeholders meet to discuss the proposed project and creates a charter to sanction project and commit resources. The Charter also identifies the project mgr.
What happens during the Planning phase of project management? The PM leads planning around deliverables, budget, and scope of the project and then develops specific activities and identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to execute the activities. A timeline is also created.
What happens during the Executing phase of project management? The project plan is implemented and the project team is created and resources acquired. The PM manages timeline, conducts meetings, disseminates information as needed.
What happens during the Controlling phase of project management? The PM keeps project on course and within budget. PM will review any change requests and incorporate as they see fit.
What happens during the Closing phase of project management? Point at which the sponsor/customer acknowledges the achievement of project goals. The PM collects information from stakeholders to improve future projects, stores documentation of project activities, and releases resources for use in other projects or activities.
What are the benefits to having a diverse workforce? 1.) More creativity 2.) Reflects population and increases ability to attract/understand customers 3.) Increases candidate pool, attract outside applicants
What do Human Relations Concepts aim to do? Look at the impact of formal (mgmt) and informal (work groups) social connections impact work processes.
What are the 3 types of intelligence identified by Human Relations Theories? 1.) Intrapersonal intelligence - self-knowledge 2.) Interpersonal intelligence - emotional intelligence & social aptitude 3.) Emotional intelligence - awareness of emotions and ability to control reaction
What are the 6 core principles of the SHRM Code of Ethical and Professional Standards? 1.) Professional Responsibility 2.) Professional Development 3.) Ethical Leadership 4.) Fairness and Justice 5.) Conflicts of Interest 6.) Use of Information
What does HRIS stand for and what purpose does it serve? Human Resource Information Systems are a repository for information and an aid to effective decision making.
Name some examples of how an HRIS can be used for applicant tracking? - Automated benefits administration - tracking recruitment efforts - eliminating duplication of data entry - tracking service awards - sharing payroll information with finance
Name some examples of how an HRIS can be used for COBRA administration? - EEO/AA reporting - administering training - compensation administration - tracking time and attendance
What is the typical HRIS access hierarchy? 1.) HR Access - all 2.) Payroll access - restricted to payroll 3.) Management Access - restricted to work group
What is Employee Self Service (ESS)? Ability for employees to access their own records through an automated system.
What is an Applicant Tracking System (ATS)? An automated method for keeping track of job applicants from the job opening to when the position is filled.
What is a Hiring Management System (HMS)? An HMS is used to carry the employer brand throughout the application process and integrates the corporate recruiting websites and carries candidate input data directly into database. Also provides standard communication template.
What is a Learning Management System (LMS)? Streamlines the administration of employee training programs. Enrolling students into required courses and provide managers with access to approve training.
What is a Learning and Performance Management System (LPMS)? System that incorporates performance and tracks individual awards.
What is a Learning Content Management System (LCMS)? System that allows creating, delivering, and modifying course content.
What are the two types of research? 1.) Primary - researcher conducts research 2.) Secondary - collected research from many researchers and other sources
What is the scientific method and the 5 steps? A formal method of primary research. 1.) Identify a problem 2.) Create a hypothesis 3.) Decide how to test the hypothesis 4.) Collect data to verify the hypothesis 5.) Draw conclusions/analyze data
What are 5 sources of data HR Personnel can use? 1.) Personnel Records 2.) Observations 3.) Interviews 4.) Focus Groups 5.) Questionnares
What is Quantitative Analysis? Mathematical models used for measuring historical data.
What is a Correlation? A correlation measures two variables to determine whether there is a relationship between them.
What is a Correlation Coefficient? The relationship between two variables stated as a number between -1.0 and +1.0.
What does a Positive or Negative Correlation Coefficient indicate? Hypothesis: Absentee rate is higher with new employees Positive - longer tenure = higher absentee Negative - shorter tenure = higher absentee
What does a steeper correlation trend line indicate? A stronger connection between the two variables.
What is Central Tendency? Also referred to as the average.
What is the mean average? Sum of values divided by # of values
What is the Mode? # that occurs most frequently
What is the Median? Number at the physical center of numbers in sequential order.
What is the Moving Average? AKA Rolling Average Average for a specific period of time (ie past 12 months)
What is a Weighted Average? Compensates for data that may be out of date. More recent data is multiplied by a predetermined # to better reflect current situation.
What is the Weighted Moving Average? Assigns more weight to current data with use of predetermined number and drops the oldest data upon addition of new data.
What is a Time-Series Forecast? Method used to measure historic data and provide basis for projecting future requirements.
What is Trend Analysis? Compares the changes in a single variable over time, generally moving upwards or downwards.
What is a Simple Linear Regression? Measures the relationship between one variable against another and allows prediction of one variable from the other.
What is a Multiple Linear Aggression? Measures the relationship between several variables to forecast another.
What is a Simulation Model? Allows several possible plans to be tested in abstract form.
What is a Ratio? Provides a benchmark based on the historic relationship of one variable to another. (ie 1:100 HR staffing ratio)
What is Qualitative Analysis? Subjective evaluations of general observations and information.
What is the Delphi Technique? Obtains input from group of individuals who provide their expertise in succeeding rounds of questions about an issue or problem. Answers are returned to group until a consensus is reached. * Participants do not meet in person, responses are written
What are the advantages to the Delphi Technique? - Geographic separation is fine - Encourages wide variety of ideas
What is the Nominal Group Technique? Structured meeting format designed to elicit participation from all members of the group to arrive at the best possible solution to problem. Process requires facilitator. Participants present 1 idea at a time recorded by facilitator. Ideas reviewed, prioritized, and resolution must be reached.
What are Metrics? Standard of measurement that can be used to compare results over time. Can be used to quantify activities and programs to demonstrate the value added to organization.
What are Business Impact Measures and what are the two metrics used to measure business impact? How HR programs add value to bottom line. 1.) Return on Investment (ROI) 2.) Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA)
What is an ROI and how is it calculated? Benefits realized divided by Total related direct/indirect costs
What does a Cost Benefit Analysis measure? Compares all costs of proposed program to benefits that will be realized and forecasts the net impact on the bottom line. CBA can be used to evaluate cost effectiveness and recommend preferred course of action.
What is the primary difference between ROI and CBA? CBA includes soft costs and ROI only includes hard costs.
What are Tactical Accountability Measures? Provides relevant information for evaluating effectiveness of specific HR programs. (ie workforce mgmt, productivity, etc.)
What is the purpose of building a Business Case? Evaluate possible consequences for taking or not taking an action. Identify criteria used to determine success, propose alternative ways to execute action, describe possible risks.
What is the purpose of Job Analysis? To define a job so that it can be understood in context of organizational goals and objectives.
How do you collect data for a Job Analysis? - Interview incumbent, supervisor, or co-workers - Complete open ended questionnaire - Complete task inventory - Observe incumbents & take notes - Use work logs
What information is included in Job Descriptions? - Identifying information - Supervisory responsibilities - Position summary - Essential functions - Nonessential functions - Equipment operated - Job Specifications (Education, Licenses, Certificates, communication skills, experience required, skills) - Physical requirements - Mental requirements - Work environment - Approvals
Name the 6 types of organizational structures. 1.) Functional - hierarchical/centralized 2.) Product Based - centralized or decentralized 3.) Geographic - local level decisions 4.) Divisional - centralized or decentralized 5.) Matrix - two managers 6.) Seamless - horizontal org
What is the purpose of conducting an Environmental Scan? Provides framework for collecting information about factors relevant to decision making process. Collect internal & external assessment.
Name 4 Environmental Scanning Tools. 1.) Statistical models 2.) SWOT Analysis 3.) PEST Analysis 4.) Porter's 5 forces
What is a Statistical Model? Quantitative analysis model that can be used to identify trends. Useful internally (turnover) and externally (customer buying).
Please describe the SWOT Analysis in detail. - Strengths: internal factors supporting plan (improved technology) - Weaknesses - internal factors that are obstacles (untrained workforce) - Opportunities - external factors that will aid (struggling competitor) - Threats - external factors organization must overcome (thriving competitor)
Describe PEST Analysis in detail. AKA Step analysis Scans external environment to identify opportunities/threats for SWOT Political Economic Social Technology
Describe Porter's 5 Forces in detail. Analytical tool developed by Michael E. Porter. 1.) New competitors 2.) Suppliers 3.) Buyers 4.) Alternative Products 5.) Industry Competition
What should you evaluate in an Internal Assessment? - Credibility of Executive team - Strength of mgmt team - Organizational culture - Workforce diversity - Product quality - Time to market, penetration - Customer loyalty
What is a Balance Sheet? The financial condition of the organization on a specific day (usually the last day of the accounting period)
What is the Balance Sheet Formula? Assets = Liabilities + Equity
What is an Income Statement? AKA Profit & Loss Statement (P&L) Provides information about financial results of operations during the reporting period. (overhead expenses, cost to produce, etc.)
What is a Statement of Cash Flows? Provides important facts about money that flowed through the business during the accounting period. Where it came from and where it was spent.
What is an Accrued Expense? Expenses such as vacation leave that have been incurred but not yet paid.
What is Accounts Payable? Money owed to the business by it's suppliers
What is Accounts Receivable? Money owed to the business by customers
What are Assets? Tangible or intangible items of value owned by the business
What is an Audited Financial Statement? Financial statements that have been examined by an independent auditor to determine whether they fairly represent financial condition of the business.
What is a Budget? A projection of revenue and expenses used to control actual expenses.
What is the Cost of Goods Sold? Money spent on supplies and labor to produce goods of services.
What is Equity? Value of business to owners after all liabilities have been paid.
What is an Expense? Money spent to operate the business.
What is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)? Standards established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) for recording financial transactions.
What is Gross Profit? Sales revenue less cost of goods sold.
What is Liability? Money owed by the business to others, such as lenders or the gov't (payroll taxes) or to employees (for unused vacation time).
What is Net Profit? Gross profit less operating expenses.
What is Profit? Money earned by the business after all expenses have been paid.
What is Retained Earnings? Net profits that aren't distributed to owners but remain in the business as equity.
What is Revenue? Money received from customers for products or services.
What are the two basic methods of creating a budget? 1.) Zero-based Budgeting - expenditures supported by new goals and action plans. 2.) Budgets based on historical information - last yr budgets
What are the 3 approaches you can take to developing a budget? 1.) Top-down budgeting - sr. mgmt imposed 2.) Bottom-up budgeting - managers with budget responsibility 3.) Parallel Budgeting - sr. mgrs and lower level mgrs create budget together
What is the Fire Drill or Crisis Management Method? Risks are either unrecognized or ignored until problem occurs and they're dealt with by having employees stop other work to resolve the crisis.
What is Risk Management? Proactive method to address business risks.
What is a Tort? An action that injures someone and can result in legal action.
How do you measure the level of risk? Risks = Probability x Consequences
What is Risk Mitigation? Steps taken to reduce risk.
What is Risk Acceptance? When a company is aware of risk but due to lower probability or consequence, management takes risk knowing it is easily manageable.
What is Risk Avoidance? Company takes steps to avoid risk. (ie sabotage risk in unionizing environment. Employer hires more safety guards)
What is Risk Transfer? Purchasing employer insurance. EPLI
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