Psychology Exam review


Psychology notes for Child and Family studies final
Flashcards by emaw757, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by emaw757 about 9 years ago

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Question Answer
What school of psychology stated that the task of psychology is to analyze conscious experience into its basic element? Structuralism
What did Sigmund Freud believe prevented us from being totally in control of our own minds? The Unconscious
Which of the following statements is the most accurate, regarding experimental psychology's eventual reaction to psychoanalytic theory? a) psychoanalytic theory was rejected by experimental psychologists b) psychoanalytic theory was accepted by experimental psychologists c) experimental psychologists began to reject behaviourism ***d) experimental psychologists tested psychoanalytic hypotheses
Which of the following statements would Skinner disagree with? a) organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes b) organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes c) all behaviour is governed by external consequences ****d) individuals have free will
Why was Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) established? to advance psychology as a science
What is the focus of applied psychology? Practical problems
Which area of research specialization in psychology studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, and motivation)? Experimental Psychology
Which of the following best describes the unifying theme that "psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context"? Psychology and society both influence each other
Which of the following is good advice for taking multiple-choice exams? Remember to continue to read all options even after you find your anticipated answer
With which goal of science is scientist's work most closely associated when they attempt to explain why something happened? Understanding and predicting
Theresa is going to conduct a study as part of her honours thesis for her psychology degree. What will her first step be if she follows the steps associated with the scientific method? formulate a hypothesis
What are two of the main advantages of the scientific approach? precision, and intolerance of error
What are the two main types of research methods used in psychology? Descriptive and correlational research methods
In the experimental method, the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions. What does the researcher do next? Observe whether any changes occur in second variable
What conditions differ between the experimental and control group? only the independent variable
What is the term for variables, other than the independent variable, that seem likely to influence the behaviour of subjects in a study? extraneous variable
If Dr. Conrad is interested in an in-depth study concerning the long-term consequences that a serious injury has on the psychological adjustment of a patient and his family, then which of the following research methods would Dr. Conrad be most likely to use? Case Study Method
What is the research method in which a researcher uses questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of behaviour in a sample of participants? Survey method
Which of the following is an index of the amount of variability in a set of data? Standard Deviation
What is the range of possible values for a correlation coefficient? between -1.00 and +1.00
Which of the following is NOT a common methodological flaw to consider when evaluating scientific research? Subject effect
What is the term for the group of individuals actually observed in a research study? Sample
Dr. Arabella surveyed students in his finance class about their attitudes concerning the Canada Pension Plan and concluded that young adults across Canada doubt that they will ever receive Canada Pension benefits. Why might his conclusion be flawed? his students were not a representative sample of young adults
What is the main function of dendrites? Receive information
Which cells in the nervous system provide support and insulation for other cells? Glial cells
In the lock and key analogy of synaptic communication, which of the following is the key? the neurotransmitter
Which of the following is most likely to occur if you were to administer a serotonin antagonist? Aggressive behaviour
If you wanted to monitor the electrical activity of the brain over time, what recording device should you use? EEG
Which of the following techniques would be most useful for research in sleep laboratories? Electroencephalography
Which procedure results in a high-quality three-dimensional picture of the brain? magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
What is likely to be released if the pituitary gland is activated? hormones
Tom is studying twins to determine the relative contribution of heredity and environment to the development of eating disorders. Which of the following is Tom's field of study? Behaviour genetics
According to signal-detection theory, what is the term for sleeping through your alarm in the morning? Miss
"Can we be influenced by things we are not consciously aware of?" Which topic addresses this question? Subliminal perception
Which aspect of vision is NOT associated with the actions of rods? colour vision
At the level of the retina and brain, which colour vision theory is supported? opponent process theory
At the level of the retina and brain, which colour vision theory is supported? opponent process theory
When you look at a pile of loose change, you're very likely to see it as comprising pennies, nickles, and dimes. Which perceptual tendency is consistent with this example? similarity
Imagine you are sitting at the dinner table and looking at the round plate in front of the the person sitting across from you. What shape would the proximal stimulus of the plate be? oval
There is a difference in the visual image of an object projected to each eye. Which depth cue uses this information? Retinal disparity
Peter is in a deep sleep and his brain wave pattern consists of low-frequency delta waves. Which stage of sleep is Peter experiencing? stage 3 or 4
What us the paradox concerning REM sleep? it is a deep sleep, but the brain wave pattern resembles the pattern of an alert and awake individual.
Which stages of sleep does NREM consist of? stages 1,2,3,4
How many sleep cycles typlically occur during the course of a night's sleep? four
Which of the following is typically true of the last dream period of the night? It is the longest.
While serving as a subject in a laboratory sleep study for several nights, Avneet was awakened whenever he entered REM sleep. When first allowed an uninterrupted night's sleep, what would Avneet do? spend more time in REM sleep than normal
Which of the following best reflects the term "insomnia"? chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
Rachel has bouts of sudden uncontrollable sleepiness during the day. She has fallen asleep while driving and in the middle of conversations. Which sleep problem does Rachel experience? Narcolepsy
Martin wakes up hundreds of times each night gasping for air. What doe she likely suffer from? Sleep Apnea
Which of the following is true of the relationship between culture and dreaming? cultures vary in the significance they place on dreaming
If a college student who is struggling to keep from flunking out of school dreams of winning the "student of the year award," with which theory of dreaming would this dream be most consistent? Wish fulfillment
Which of the following is true regarding the likelihood of hypnotic susceptibility in population? it is normally distributed across the population with roughly 10% of individuals at each of the extreme ends of the scale.
Danielle is walking to work, along a route that she knows very well. When she arrives at work she realizes that she didn't notice anything going on around her during most of her walk because she was thinking about various other things. Which theory of hypnosis suggests that hypnosis is like an extreme version of this experiences? Hilgard's dissociation theory
Nancy is in a state than includes reduced heart rate, reduced consumption of oxygen, and an EEG pattern that includes alpha and theta waves. Which of the following states is Nancy likely to be in? Meditation
Which of the following drugs is NOT from the same category as the others? Marijuana
What is the term used when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawl illness? Physical dependence
In classical conditioning, what is a UCS? a stimulus that evokes a response without previous conditioning
In classical conditioning, what is a UCS? a stimulus that evokes a learned response
In classical conditioning, what is the term for the initial stage of learning a new association? acquistion
What is the term for the gradual weakening and disappearance of a tendency to make a conditioned response? extinction
if a dog that has been classically conditioned to salivate when shown a square does not salivate when shown a triangle, what does the dog's behaviour illustrate? stimulus discrimination
A dog has been conditioned to salivate in the presence of a 1000 hertz tone, but whenever an 800 hertz tone was presented there would be no food presented. Which of the following tones will elicit the least salivation? 700 hertz
If the cumulative record for Rat A has a sleep slope, while Rat B's has a shallow slope, what would you conclude? Rat A has a higher rate of responding than Rat B
What happens to an operant response, in order to extinguish that response? It is followed by intermittent reinforcement
What is most likely to lead to the development of a superstitious behaviour? non-contingent reinforcement
Zane is allowed to play video games after every time he helps with doing dishes? What is this pattern of reinforcement called? Continuous reinforcement
When Jeff compliments Marnie, she sometimes gives him a big kiss. What is the pattern of reinforcement called? Intermittent reinforcement
Which schedule of reinforcement should you use if you want a rat in a Skinner Box to respond with both a high and steady rate of response? variable ratio
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? Making a child sit in the corner until he or she says, "I'm sorry"
If you start driving your car without fastening your seatbelt, you will hear a somewhat annoying sound. What type of learning have you demonstrated if you learn to fasten the seatbelt after hearing the sound? escape learning
When Alek does not complete his homework in time, his mother takes away the power cord for his video game system? What does this example illustrate? punishment
Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner viewed conditioning as a purely mechanical process, but how do modern learning psychologists view conditioning? it is seen as also involving cognitive components
What is ruled out by evidence of observational learning? reinforcement is necessary to strengthen behaviour
It often helps an individual comply with a behaviour modification program. What is this type of agreement called? Behavioural contract
WHich of the following is an example of the statement that 'language is symbolic'? I can use the word, 'dog' to refer to an animal that isnt currently present.
When your psychology professor used the word "experiment" to refer to the scientific method described in Chapter 2, which property of language was reflected by the term "experiment"? Language is symbollic
What is the system of rules that specifies how words can be arranged into sentences in a language? syntax
What has been demonstrated in research on children and adults who are learning a second language? Young children are more successful than adults in learning the second lanugage
What is the primary barrier that prevents chimpanzees from learning to speak? Their mouths and throats are not equipped to produce spoken words
According to Steven Pinker, what is human language ability? species-specific trait that resulted from natural selection
If you are asked to come up with one word that is typically paired with taxi, screw and cattle (the answer is 'driver'), what sort of problem are you solving? Problems of inducing structure
What are people doing if a mental set interferes with problem solving? They persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
Your Dad has a problem: what to get your Mom for her birthday. He mentally reviews her reaction to presents he has given her in the past ( an iron, a toaster, an ice cream maker). If he decides to get her a cappuccino machine because she seemed to like a "luxury" appliance like the ice cream maker more than the "routine" or necessary appliances like the toaster, your Dad would be making use of which approach to problem solving? Searching for analogies
Which type of culture facilitates a field dependent style? Societies that are sedentary and depend on agriculture.
According to Simon's theory of bounded rationality, why do humans tend to make irrational decisions? We use simple strategies and focus on limited information.
Which of the text's unifying themes do interactionist theories of language development best reflect? Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.
Anders is betting Mischa on whether a tossed coin will land on heads or tails. Anders has bet heads the last four times and has lost each time. If on the next toss he bets heads again and says, "It's got to be heads, heads is overdue." what does his reasoning illustrate? The gambler's fallacy.
People tend to put too much faith in their own estimates and beliefs. What is this tendency called? Confirmation bias
What could you call a promise of a bonus of $100.00 for completing a work assignment before a deadline? An incentive
Which of the following does NOT describe one of the three main processes involved in memory? evaluating information in memory
What is the first memory process that involves getting information into memory? Encoding
Which of the following is an example of the memory process of storage? maintaining the knowledge of your best friend's phone number for years.
What is the specific term for the memory process that allows you to recite a poem that you have previously memorized? Retrieval
Mary is studying in the library and she is very focused on reading over her class notes. She doesn't even notice the various conversations going on around her. As a result, she is becoming better prepared for the exam that is scheduled for tomorrow. Which of the following processes is best illustrated by this example? Attention
What is the shallowest level of verbal information processing? Structural encoding
According to levels of processing theory, what type of processing leads to longer-lasting memory codes? Deeper
When their mom took them to the store yesterday, she asked Emil and Niklas to help her remember to buy apples. While Emil focused his attention on how apples were his favourite fruit, Niklas thought of seeing a bag of big red apples in the shopping cart. Which methods were the boys using? Elaboration and visual imagery
Which is the following is an example of self-referent encoding? Linking new information to things that relate to your own life.
What is sensory memory? A brief type of storage that preserves information in its original form for a fraction of a second
When a flashlight is waved quickly through the air in a circular pattern, you perceive a circle of light and not just a "single point" of light. Which type of memory functioning is this observation consistent with? Sensory memory
What is short-term memory good for? Maintaining unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
If you don't write down a list of all things you need at the store, how many individual items are you likely to be able to remember? 7
If you are planning to spend six hours studying for you final exam in psychology, which of the following would be the best strategy? Have three two hour study sessions with one session per day starting three days before the exam.
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