|What was the date of the beginning of the 1905 Revolution and the 'Bloody Sunday' Massacre?
|January 22nd 1905
|Why did the people distrust the Tsarina?
|- She was of German heritage, and they were currently fighting a war against the Germans. - She worshipped and trusted Rasputin who was disliked by the Russian people due to his promiscuity and shady acts. However she loved him as he cured her son of Haemophilia.
|What is a duma and why was it unsuccessful?
|The duma was one of the reforms made by the October Manifesto after the 1905 revolution. It was a shared government with the Tsar that represented the proletariat. However it was unsuccessful because it was under the technicality of 'divine right', which meant that Nicholas II could dissolve any duma if he disagreed with it.
|Why was there discontent with the government in Russia at the time?
|The autocratic leader (the Tsar) was a weak willed and conservative man. He was a kind father but ruled Russia with a firm and cruel hand. The Okhrana, his secret police, caused terror all throughout the country and he did not want to share rule. He wanted to be the high king, and the only king, of Russia, and the proletariat - the majority of the population - were not his priority.
|What were the opposing political parties?
|Social Democrats, i.e the Mensheviks (minorities) and the Bolsheviks (majorities), as well as the Provisional Government (originally the Duma).
|Why did the Tsar abdicate the throne?
|It was an involuntary abdication as when the 1917 Revolution happened, he was on the warfront and when he returned by train, the transportation was stopped and he was forced to denounce the throne and remain on house arrest. The Duma became the Provisional Government and took charge of the Russian Empire.
|Why was World War I such a cause of discontent in Russia before the 1917 Revolution?
|Nicholas II tried to promote nationalism by joining the warfront and becoming commander of the army, however he did not have any previous training and they were losing the war even more under his command. Also, it meant the famine was rife not only on the front lines but also in the Motherland, as the remaining food and basic necessities at home were sent to the troupes.
|Who were the two most notable Bolsheviks that triggered the October 1917 Revolution?
|Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky
|Who was the leader of the Provisional Government?
|What were Lenin's political views?
|Marxism-Leninism. He agreed with the classless, worker prioritised, equal society, but believed that this would only were a controlled and planned coup/revolution to take place and a political opponent, (in his opinion, the Bolsheviks) to be prepared to take control.
|What happened on January 22nd 1905?
|The first revolution took place after the 'Bloody Sunday' massacre when the Tsar ordered his army to shoot at peaceful protestors.
|After the abdication of the Tsar, who was in control?
|The Bourgeoisie, those who ran the Provisional Government.
|What were the soviets aim politically during their first years?
|They did not wish to rule Russia, simply advocate for the rights of the workers and make sure there was proper representation.
|What were Kerensky's political views? What political party did he support?
|Alexander Kerensky was a Menshevik and was therefore a Socialist.
|What is the difference between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks?
|Bolshevism favoured a small, disciplined party of professional revolutionaries; the Mensheviks wanted a loosely organised mass party.
|What is the importance of Rasputin in the Tsar's unpopularity?
|Rasputin was a trusted member of the Tsar's inner circle due to his curing of the Tsar's son Alexi of Haemophilia. However, the Russia people distrusted him immensely as his personality was shady and while he claimed to be religious and seemingly a monk-like figure, he was the epitome of promiscuity, and was often in another's bed, showing his less than innocent interior monologue.
|What month was the spontaneous revolution by the workers in Petrograd? What was the motto of these protestors?
|July "all power to the soviets"
|List the countries Lenin has been exiled to.
|Siberia and Finland.
|List 4 historians of the Russian Revolution era.
|i.e Robert Service, Orlando Figes, John Reed and Norman Lowe.
|What was the nature of the 1917 October Revolution?
|A bloodless revolution that was planned and co-ordinated. The soviets all voted to dissolve the provisional government and for the Bolshevik to take control.
|What were the major issues with the spontaneous revolution in July 1917 according to Lenin?
|He believed in an organised revolution and the spontaneity was something he didn't like and he was not prepared. The Bolsheviks could have taken power right then and there but Lenin did not see fit.