Week 8 Endocrine Pharmacology


Flashcards on Week 8 Endocrine Pharmacology, created by Elizabeth Then on 07/10/2017.
Elizabeth Then
Flashcards by Elizabeth Then, updated more than 1 year ago
Elizabeth Then
Created by Elizabeth Then about 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Insufficient hormone secretion Diabetes: Insulin Hypothyroidism: Thyroxine
Excessive hormone secretion Tumours Cushing's disease: adrenal corticosteroids Hyperthyroidism: thyroxine
Adrenal Steroids mineralcorticosteroids, glucocorticoids (used as anti-inflammatory agents)
Cushing's disease excessive exposure to glucocorticoids symptoms: moonface, red cheeks, adbo fat, easy bruising, poor wound healing
Insulin hormone controlling intermediary metabolism, actions on liver, muscle, fat
Diabetes inability to control blood glucose due to inadequate insulin action
Type 1 diabetes lack of insulin secretion, usually in pts less than 20 years, sudden onset
Type2 diabetes resistance to insulin, usually in pts over 35 years, obese, late onset
Goals of therapy for diabetes replace insulin to physiological levels obtain metabolic control regulate glucose levels diet and exercise monitoring is pivotal
Treatment for type 1 diabetes replace insulin
Treatment for type 2 diabetes Insulin resistant Oral hypoglycemics Glucose lowering drugs e.g. sulfonylureas (giblenclamide)- enhance insulin release Biguanine(Metformin)- decrease glucose production, increase glucose utilisation in tissues Glitazones (rosiglitazone)- increase insulin sensitivity
Insulin formations duration of action ultra short acting- Afrezza, 15 min Short acting- injection insulin, 30 min Medium acting- zinc suspension, 1-3 hours Long acting- zinc suspension crystaling, 2-6 hours
Insulin adverse effects generally rare allergic reactions lipodystrophy overdose hypoglycemia symptoms fainting, sweating, tremor
Insulin drug interactions beta blockers- mask symptoms of hypoglycemia Corticosteroids, thiazide diuretics, produce hyperglycemia alcohol, produces hyporglycemia, intoxication causes loss of attention to glucose control CNS stimulants, hyperglycemia Smoking, hyperglycemia
Type 2 Diabetes stepwise approach Lifestyle changes- first step Start pharmacotherapy if pts do not achieve treatment start with oral medications glucose-lowering progressively intensify therapy by adding medication if treatment targets
Oral Hypoglycemics -adverse effects Metformin- GI upsets, hypoglycemia, anemia, interaction with alcohol, beta adrenoreceptors Sulphonylurea- hypoglycemia, GI upsets, weight gain, interaction with alcohol, NSAIDS, monoamine oxidase inhibitor Glitazones- weight gain, anemia, hepatic toxicity, heart failure
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