The Gastrointestinal System- Physiology- PMU

Description

The Gastrointestinal System- Physiology- PMU
Med Student
Quiz by Med Student , updated more than 1 year ago
Med Student
Created by Med Student almost 7 years ago
975
34

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The term ‘metabolism’:
Answer
  • refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
  • includes the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones
  • includes the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
  • includes anabolism and catabolism
  • all of the above

Question 2

Question
Which of the following statements concerning energy storage in the body is true?
Answer
  • most is stored in the form of ATP
  • most is stored in the form of glucose
  • most is stored in the form of fat
  • most is stored in the form of protein
  • most is stored in the form of DNA

Question 3

Question
The enzyme amylase is secreted by:
Answer
  • liver and duodenum
  • duodenum and pancreas
  • salivary glands and liver
  • pancreas and salivary glands
  • stomach and duodenum

Question 4

Question
An example of absorption is the:
Answer
  • movement of food by peristalsis
  • active transport of glucose into a villus
  • hydrolysis of a peptide into amino acids
  • release of secretin in the presence of HCL
  • c and d

Question 5

Question
Chewing food aids digestion by:
Answer
  • stimulating the release of bile
  • increasing the surface area of the food
  • breaking up large protein molecules into peptides
  • breaking down carbohydrates
  • breaking down fats

Question 6

Question
A function of the small intestine is to:
Answer
  • secrete bile
  • filter waste
  • make vitamins
  • absorb nutrients
  • secrete HCL

Question 7

Question
The main source of energy in food is:
Answer
  • proteins
  • vitamins
  • nucleic acids
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids

Question 8

Question
Which of the following has the lowest pH?
Answer
  • gastric juice
  • hepatic bile
  • pancreatic juice
  • saliva
  • secretion of the intestinal glands

Question 9

Question
Calcium absorption is facilitated by:
Answer
  • hypercalcaemia
  • oxalates in the diet
  • iron overload
  • 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
  • increased Na+ absorption

Question 10

Question
When parietal cells are stimulated, they secrete:
Answer
  • HCL and intrinsic factor
  • HCL and pepsinogen
  • HCL and HCo3-
  • HCO3- and intrinsic factor
  • mucus and pepsinogen

Question 11

Question
Secretion of HCL by the gastric parietal cells is needed for:
Answer
  • activation of pancreatic lipases
  • activation of salivary lipases
  • activation of intrinsic factor
  • conversion of pepsinogen into pepsin
  • formation of micelles

Question 12

Question
Fat absorption occurs mainly in the:
Answer
  • stomach
  • duodenum
  • terminal ileum
  • caecum
  • sigmoid colon

Question 13

Question
The movements of the small intestine are:
Answer
  • mixing contraction
  • propulsive contraction
  • antiperistaltic contraction
  • hunger contraction
  • a and b

Question 14

Question
Where the protein hydrolysis occurs:
Answer
  • oral cavity
  • stomach
  • small intestine
  • esophagus
  • b, and c

Question 15

Question
Which of the following organs or tissues is most dependent upon a constant blood supply of glucose?
Answer
  • liver
  • brain
  • adipose tissue
  • skeletal muscle
  • cardiac muscle

Question 16

Question
After a fatty meal is taken, most of the fat would be:
Answer
  • absorbed in the portal circulation and transported to the liver
  • absorbed in the portal vein and transported in the hepatic artery
  • absorbed as chylomicrons in the lymphatic system
  • absorbed as triglycerides into the portal vein and bypasses the liver
  • absorbed in the duodenum

Question 17

Question
For fat digestion:
Answer
  • bile salts are the most efficient emulsifiers
  • gastric lipase is the most important
  • pancreatic lipase in the duodenum is the most important
  • digestion takes place in micelles
  • micelles attach to enterocyte receptor

Question 18

Question
Gastric acid secretion is decreased by:
Answer
  • vagal inhibition
  • ingestion of protein
  • noradrenaline
  • M1-cholinergic antagonist show the same efficacy at reducing gastric acid secretion
  • distension of bowel wall

Question 19

Question
Release of which one of the following increases the pH of duodenal contents?
Answer
  • secretin
  • gastrin
  • intrinsic factor
  • cholecystokinin
  • gastrin releasing peptide

Question 20

Question
In the small intestine, glucose is absorbed:
Answer
  • passively
  • by secondary active transport (coupled to Na transport)
  • by facilitated diffusion
  • by co-transport with chloride
  • actively by insulin dependent uptake

Question 21

Question
After ingestion of a meal:
Answer
  • digestion of fat and carbohydrate begins in the mouth while protein digestion begins in the stomach
  • carbohydrates are digested in the mouth and proteins in the stomach
  • proteins are digested in mouth and fats and carbohydrates in stomach
  • most fluid and electrolytes are absorbed in the large bowel
  • composition of the food has no effect on transit time through the bowel

Question 22

Question
Calcium uptake in the intestine:
Answer
  • is passive
  • requires a carrier protein on the mucosal side
  • is by facilitated diffusion
  • is less than 10% of dietary intake
  • is facilitated by phosphate

Question 23

Question
Which one of the following is a water soluble vitamin?
Answer
  • vit. A
  • vit. B
  • vit. D
  • vit. E
  • vit. K

Question 24

Question
In the duodenum in response to acidic chyme is released:
Answer
  • cholecystokinin
  • gastrin
  • secretin
  • peptide
  • amylase

Question 25

Question
In the GI tract. the layer, responsible for absorption and secretion is:
Answer
  • mucosa
  • submucosa
  • muscularis
  • serosa
  • adventitia

Question 26

Question
The digestive enzyme, produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas is:
Answer
  • maltase
  • amylase
  • pepsin
  • nuclease
  • lipase

Question 27

Question
This keeps the chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine:
Answer
  • esophageal sphincter
  • Intrinsic sphincter
  • cardiac sphincter
  • pyloric sphincter
  • duodenal sphincter

Question 28

Question
Most of the chemical and mechanical digestion is carried out within:
Answer
  • pylorus
  • fundus
  • stomach
  • large intestine
  • small intestine

Question 29

Question
Parietal cells secrete:
Answer
  • serotonin
  • mucus
  • pepsinogen
  • hydrochloric acid
  • gastrin

Question 30

Question
The cells at the base of fundic or oxyntic glands are:
Answer
  • chief cells
  • G cells
  • enteroendocrine cells
  • goblet cells
  • parietal cells

Question 31

Question
The chyme movement and flow into the stomach is controlled by:
Answer
  • nervous system
  • pancreas
  • various digestive system hormones
  • liver
  • both the nervous system and various digestive system hormones

Question 32

Question
The function of the ileum is to:
Answer
  • absorb nutrients
  • absorb vitamin B12 and bile salts
  • introduce bile and pancreatic juices
  • absorb alcohol and aspirin
  • all of the above

Question 33

Question
Gastrointestinal hormones:
Answer
  • are secreted by exocrine glands of the gut mucosa and affect metabolism
  • are secreted into the blood stream by specialised cells in the gut walls and modulate its motor and secretory activity
  • are secreted by the gastric walls and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic enzymes
  • are situated in the epithelial intestinal cells (enterocytes) and control the cell metabolism of nutrients
  • are secreted by the gastric walls and colon and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic and nucleic enzymes

Question 34

Question
The gastrointestinal enzymes;
Answer
  • are situated in the epithelial cells (enterocytes) and control cell metabolism
  • are secreted into the blood stream by specialized cells in the gut walls and modulate its motor and secretory activity
  • are secreted by exocrine glands of the gut mucosa and break down nutrients
  • are secreted by the gastric walls and protect the gut mucosa from the effect of HCL and proteolytic enzymes
  • are secreted by the gastric walls into the small intestine and protect the gut mucosa om the effect of HCL, proteolytic and nucleic enzymes

Question 35

Question
Which enzymes are secreted with the gastric juice:
Answer
  • pepsinogene and lipase
  • pepsinogene, tripsinogene and maltase
  • pepsinogene, lipase and HCL
  • protcolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes
  • protcolytic, nucleolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes

Question 36

Question
Which enzymes are secreted with the pancreatic juice:
Answer
  • lipolytic: lipase and esterase
  • proteolytic: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, etc
  • amilolitic: amylase, maltase, sacharase, lactase
  • nucleic: RNA-ase and DNA-ase
  • all of the above

Question 37

Question
The enzymes, secreted with the intestinal juice are:
Answer
  • exopeptidases, lipase, maltase, nucleic (nuclease, nucleotidases, nucleosidases)
  • endo- and exopeptidases, esterase and amylolytic enzymes
  • aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, nuclease and llpase
  • aminopeptidase, dipeptidase, nuclease, somatostatin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin
  • trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase and lipase

Question 38

Question
Which of the bile components are important for digestion:
Answer
  • secretin and hepatocrinin
  • bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol
  • acid phosphatase, secretin and hepatocrinin
  • proteolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes
  • cholecystokinin-pancreozimin and hepatocrinin

Question 39

Question
The humoral factors inhibiting gastric motility are:
Answer
  • Gastrin
  • GIP, catecholamines, secretin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin
  • Secretin and cholccystokinin-pancreozimin
  • Gastrin and motilin
  • Intestinal hormones, somatostatin, secretin and cholecystockinin-pancreozimin

Question 40

Question
The humoral factors stimulating gastric motility are:
Answer
  • Catecholamines, secretin, gastric peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin
  • Secretin and cholecystokinim-pancreozimin
  • Motilin and gastrin
  • GIP, VlP, somatostalin, secretin and cholecystokinin-pancrezimin
  • Gastrin, histamine, secretin

Question 41

Question
The humoral factors that stimulate intestinal motility are:
Answer
  • catecholamines and intestinal hormones
  • secretin and hepatocrinin
  • secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, GlP, VIP, substance P and bombesin
  • intestinal hormones
  • gastin, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin and hepatocrinin

Question 42

Question
The humoral factor's that inhibit gastric secretion are:
Answer
  • Gastrin, histamme, acetylcholine, cholecystokinin-pancreozinin, bombesin, motilin
  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, somatostatin, catecholamines
  • GIP, secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, VIP, enterogastrone
  • Enkephalines, endorphines, angiotensinogens
  • Corticoglomerolotropin, prolactin, substance P

Question 43

Question
Which humoral factors stimulate gastric secretion:
Answer
  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-somatostatin
  • Secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, histamine, acetylcholine, bombesin,motilin, meat and vegetable extracts
  • VIP, somatostatin, GIP, cholecystokinin-pancrcosimin
  • Corticoglomerulotropin, prolactin, substance P
  • Gastrin, histamine, secretin

Question 44

Question
The physiological effect of gastrin on gastric secretion is:
Answer
  • increased amount of gastric juice of low acidity and high proteolytic activity
  • to decrease the amount of gastric juice
  • decreased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity
  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity

Question 45

Question
The physiological effect of histamine on gastric secretion is:
Answer
  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and low proteolytic activity
  • to decrease the amount of the gastric juice
  • increased amount of gastric juice of low acidity and high proteolytic activity
  • increased amount of gastric juice of high acidity and high proteolytic activity

Question 46

Question
The humoral factors that stimulate the formation and secretion of bile are:
Answer
  • angiotensin, thyroxine, somatostatin
  • glucagon, calcitonin, VIP
  • secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, bile salts
  • catecholamines, glucagon, calcitonin, VIP
  • alkaline and acid phosphatase

Question 47

Question
The humoral factors that inhibit the formation and secretion of bile are:
Answer
  • secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, acetylcholine
  • catecholamines, no
  • alkaline and acid phosphatase
  • angiotensin, tiroxin, somatostatin
  • insulin, glucagon, cathecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones

Question 48

Question
The humoral factors that stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice are:
Answer
  • glucagon, calcitonin, somatostatin
  • tripsin, amilase, lipase
  • secretin, cholecystokinin-pancreozimin, gastrin, serotonin, VlP, insulin
  • somatostatin, GIP
  • glucagon, insulin, catecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones

Question 49

Question
The carbohydrates are absorbed as:
Answer
  • mono- and disaccharides
  • glucose and glycogen
  • monosaccharides - pentoses and hexoses
  • glucosamines
  • glucose, glycogen, glucosamine

Question 50

Question
The hormones regulating carbohydrate metabolism (synthesis, catabolism) are:
Answer
  • androgenes, estrogenes, progesteron, adrenoglomerulotropin
  • insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, growth hormone, glucocorticoids (ACTH), T3 and T4 (TTH)
  • somatostatin, bombesin, gastrin, histanime, kinins
  • glucagon, calcitonin, somatostatin, calecholamines, serotonin
  • catecholamines, glucagon, dehydroepiandroserone, somatotropin

Question 51

Question
The hormones that increase significantly the basic metabolic rate are:
Answer
  • Insulin and glucocorticoids
  • Glucagon and parathyroid hormone
  • Testosterone and estrogens
  • T3, T4, catecholamines and glucocorticoids
  • Insulin and growth hormone

Question 52

Question
Glucose enters the blood stream via:
Answer
  • absorption in the mouth
  • gluconeogenesis in the skeletal muscles
  • enterocytes' absorption, liver glycogen catabolism, hepatocytes and kidneys gluconeogenesis, renal proximal tubule epitheliocytes
  • degradation of glycogen in the skeletal muscles
  • glucogenolisis in the hepatocytes

Question 53

Question
The basal metabolic rate is the energy consumption of the body under the following conditions:
Answer
  • adequate intake of vitamins regulating the intermediate processes of metabolism of the various substances
  • normal function of the endocrine glands
  • physical and psychic rest, 12 hours after the last meal in a room at a temperature of 20-22°C
  • during physical activity
  • during sleep, pregnancy or lactation

Question 54

Question
The chief cells of the stomach glands secrete:
Answer
  • enzymes
  • hydrochloric acid
  • mucus
  • gastrointestinal hormones
  • autonomously active substances

Question 55

Question
The humoral and pharmacological factors inhibiting salivary secretion are:
Answer
  • catecholamines
  • cholinolytics
  • adrenominetics
  • catecholamines, cholinolytics, adrenomimetics
  • adrenolytics and cholinomimetics

Question 56

Question
Humoral factors taking part in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis are:
Answer
  • parathyroid hormone and thyroxin
  • parathyroid hormone, thyrocalcitonin and vitamin D3
  • thyrocalcitonin and epinephrine
  • thyrocalcitonin and aldosteron
  • antidiuretic hormone, androgens and angiotensin II

Question 57

Question
The body requires amino acids to:
Answer
  • produce new red blood cells
  • produce new protein
  • replace damaged red blood cells
  • replace damaged protein
  • b and d

Question 58

Question
Which of the following will catalyze the breakdown of starches?
Answer
  • protease
  • amylase
  • lipase
  • sucrase
  • peptidase

Question 59

Question
Which molecule represents the storage form of glucose in the liver?
Answer
  • glycogen
  • glucagon
  • disaccharide
  • lactic acid
  • carbonic acid

Question 60

Question
As far as bile is considered:
Answer
  • contains enzymes required for the digestion of fat
  • contains unconjugated bilirubin
  • bile salts make cholesterol more water-soluble
  • pigments contain iron
  • becomes more alkaline during storage in the gallbladder

Question 61

Question
Saliva:
Answer
  • from different salivary glands has a similar composition
  • contains enzymes essential for the digestion of proteins
  • has less than half the ionic calcium level of plasma
  • has more than twice the iodide level of plasma
  • has a pH between 5 and 6

Question 62

Question
Swallowing is a reflex which:
Answer
  • has its reflex centres in the cervical segments of the spinal cord
  • is initiated by a voluntary act and includes inhibition of respiration
  • has its reflex centres in the thoracic segments of the spinal cord
  • is not dependent on intrinsic nerve networks in the esophagus
  • is more effective when the person is lying down rather than when standing

Question 63

Question
Appetite for food is increased:
Answer
  • by the secretion of cholecystokinin
  • by the secretion of calcitonin
  • when the stomach is distended
  • the stomach is denervated
  • the environment is cold

Question 64

Question
Secretion of saliva increases when;
Answer
  • atropine is applied
  • the month is flushed with fluids with a pH of about 7
  • the subject thinks of unappetizing food
  • epinephrine is applied
  • the saliva glands parasympathetic nerve supply is stimulated

Question 65

Question
Defecation is a reflex action:
Answer
  • that is coordinated by reflex centres in the sacral cord
  • whose afferent limb carries impulses from stretch receptors in the colon
  • whose efferent limb travels mainly in sympathetic autonomic nerves
  • which is more likely to be initiated just before a meal than just after it
  • which can be unvoluntarily inhibited or facilitated

Question 66

Question
In the stomach:
Answer
  • pH rarely falls below 4.0
  • pepsinogen is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid
  • ferrous iron is reduced to ferric iron by hydrochloric acid
  • acid secretion is inhibited by pentagastrin
  • there is a rise in the bacterial count after histamine H1 receptor blockade

Question 67

Question
Intestinal juice contain:
Answer
  • potassium in a concentration similar to that in extracellular fluid
  • enzymes that are released when the vagus nerve is inhibited
  • enzymes that hydrolyze disaccharides
  • enzymes that hydrolyze monosaccharides
  • enzymes that suppress pancreatic proteolyic enzymes

Question 68

Question
Pancreatic secretion:
Answer
  • in response to vagal stimulation is copious, rich in bicarbonate but poor in enzymes
  • in response to acid in the duodenum is scanty but rich in enzymes
  • to response to secretin secretion is low in bicarbonate
  • contains enzymes that digest neutral fat to glycerol and fatty acids
  • contains enzymes that convert disaccharides to monosaccharides

Question 69

Question
The liver is the principal site for:
Answer
  • synthesis of plasma albumin
  • synthesis of plasma globulins
  • synthesis of vitamin B12
  • storage of vitamin C
  • activation of some polypeptide hormones

Question 70

Question
The gastric juice:
Answer
  • is secreted when the vagus nerves are stimulated
  • is secreted in vagotomized animals when food IS chewed but not swallowed
  • activates the digestive enzymes secreted with saliva
  • digests the gastric mucosa because it is not protected by a pepsin inactivator
  • does not imitate the oesophageal mucosa if regurgitated from the stomach

Question 71

Question
The respiratory quotient:
Answer
  • is the volume of 02 consumed to the volume of CO2 produced ratio
  • depends essentially on the type of substrate being metabolized and is 1.0 when the substrate is glucose
  • is 1.0 in conditions of metabolic alcalosis
  • is between 0.9 and 1.0 in the second week of fasting
  • is above 0.8 if fats are mainly metabolized

Question 72

Question
Oxygen consumption tends to increase when the:
Answer
  • concentration of oxygen in inspired air rises
  • metabolic rate falls
  • body temperature rises and environmental temperature falls
  • environmental temperature increases
  • before a meal is ingested

Question 73

Question
Brown fat is:
Answer
  • relatively more abundant in adults than in infants
  • richer in mitochondria than ordinary fat and has an extensive sympathetic innervation
  • produces less heat and more ATP than other tissues
  • stimulated to generate more but when its parasympathetic nerve supply is stimulated
  • less important than shivering in neonatal thermoregulation

Question 74

Question
Nitrogen balance:
Answer
  • is the relationship between the body's nitrogen intake and nitrogen loss
  • is usually negative in childhood
  • becomes more positive when dietary protein is decreased
  • becomes positive whenever a single essential amino acid is omitted from the diet
  • becomes less negative in the final stages of fatal starvation

Question 75

Question
The normally innervated stomach:
Answer
  • is stimulated to secrete gastric juice when food is chewed, even if it is not swallowed
  • secrete HCL when its H1- histamine receptors are blocked
  • increases gastric secretion when there are fear and depression
  • empties slower than the denervated stomach
  • is stimulated to secrete gastric juice by the hormone secretin

Question 76

Question
The passage of acidic gastric contents to the duodenum may cause:
Answer
  • copious secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate
  • increased gastric motility
  • relaxation of the gallbladder
  • contraction of the sphincter of Oddi
  • inhibition of pancreozymin secretion

Question 77

Question
Bile salts:
Answer
  • derived from cholesterol, are the only constituents of bile necessary for digestion
  • have a characteristic molecule, being water-soluble
  • are reabsorbed mainly in the upper small intestine
  • increase surface tension
  • are absorbed in the colon

Question 78

Question
The specific dynamic action of food:
Answer
  • is the decrease in metabolic rate that results from ingestion of food
  • persists for about an bout after a meal is ingested
  • is due to the additional energy expended in digesting and absorbing the food
  • results in about 30 per cent of the may value of ingested protein being unavailable for other purposes
  • results in about 20 per cent of the energy value of ingested fat and carbohydrate being unavailable for other purposes

Question 79

Question
Secretion of gastric juice:
Answer
  • decreases when food stimulates mucosal cells in the pyloric region
  • is associated with a decrease in the pH of venous blood during the stomach
  • in response to food is increased after vagotomy
  • is essential for carbohydrate digestion
  • is essential for absorption of vitamin B12

Question 80

Question
In the small intestine:
Answer
  • the enzyme concentration in intestinal juice is higher in the ileum than in the jejunum
  • vitamin B12 is absorbed mainly in the jejunum
  • water absorption is independent on the active absorption of sodium and glucose
  • absorption of calcium occurs mainly in the terminal ileum
  • glucose absorption is dependent on sodium absorption

Question 81

Question
The cells of the liver:
Answer
  • help to maintain the normal blood glucose level
  • deaminate amino acids to form NH4+ which is excreted as ammonium salts in the urine
  • synthesize Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
  • manufacture most of the immune globulins
  • activate steroid hormones manufactured in the gonads

Question 82

Question
Absorption of dietary fat:
Answer
  • can only occur after the neutral fat has been split into glycerol and fatty acids
  • does not depend on their size
  • is impaired when bile salt reabsorption is prevented by resection of the terminal ileum
  • is carried out by passive diffusion
  • is greatest in the lower parts of the small intestine

Question 83

Question
One gram of:
Answer
  • carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields more energy when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter
  • fat, metabolized in the body, yields no per cent more energy than 1g of carbohydrate
  • protein, metabolized in the body, yields the same energy as when oxidized in a bomb calorimeter
  • carbohydrate, metabolized in the body, yields about the same energy as 1g of protein
  • protein per kg body weight is not the adequate daily protein intake for a sedentary adult

Question 84

Question
Cholesterol:
Answer
  • can be absorbed from the gut by intestinal lymphatics following its incorporation into chylomicrons
  • can be synthesized in the spleen
  • in the diet comes mainly from vegetable sources
  • is eliminated from the body mainly by metabolic degradation
  • is a precursor of adrenal medulla hormones

Question 85

Question
Free (non-esterified) fatty acids in plasma:
Answer
  • are provided to fat cells and other tissues by chylomicrons and VLDL
  • are bound to albumins
  • decrease when the level of blood adrenaline rises
  • can be metabolized to release energy in smooth muscle
  • are not synthesized in the fat depots where they are stored

Question 86

Question
lmpaired intestinal absorption of:
Answer
  • iron occurs frequently following removal of most of the stomach
  • iodine leads to a reduction in size of the thyroid gland
  • water occurs in infants who cannot digest lipids
  • calcium may occur following removal of the terminal ileum
  • bile salts may occur following resection of the stomach

Question 87

Question
Peptic ulcer pain is typically relieved by:
Answer
  • raising the pH of the fluid bathing the ulcer and a drug blocking the gastric proton pump
  • a drug decreasing the pH
  • H2 stimulators
  • a drug which interferes with the action of acetylcholinesterase
  • a drug which stimulates the gastric proton pump

Question 88

Question
Fat stores In the adult:
Answer
  • make up less than 5% of average body weight
  • make up a smaller percentage of body weight in women than in men
  • release fatty acids when there is increased sympathetic nerve activity
  • release fatty acids when insulin is injected
  • enlarge by increasing the number of adipocytes they contain

Question 89

Question
Metabolic rate can be estimated from measurements of:
Answer
  • total heat loss
  • the calorific value of the food consumed m the previous 24 hour
  • oxygen consumption and the respiratory quotient
  • carbon dioxide production and the respiratory quotient
  • c and d

Question 90

Question
Complications that may arise after total gastrectomy include
Answer
  • depletion of vitamin B12 stores in the liver
  • malabsorption of fat due to rapid intestinal transit
  • impaired defaecation due to loss of the gastrocolic reflex
  • inability to digest protein
  • a and b

Question 91

Question
Severe diarrhoea causes a decrease in:
Answer
  • body potassium
  • antidiuretic hormone level
  • extracellular fluid volume
  • total vascular peripheral resistance
  • a and b

Question 92

Question
Urobilinogen is:
Answer
  • a mixture of colourless compounds also known as stercobilinogen
  • formed in the reticuloendothelial system from bilirubin
  • absorbed from the intestine
  • excreted mainly in the urine
  • a and c

Question 93

Question
Surgical removal of 90 % of the small intestine may cause a decrease in:
Answer
  • the fat content of the stools
  • bone mineralization (osteomalacia)
  • extracellular fluid volume
  • blood haemoglobin level
  • body weight

Question 94

Question
Lack of pancreatic juice in the duodenum may lead to:
Answer
  • the presence of undigested meat fibres in the stools
  • an increase in the fat content of the films
  • a decrease in the fat of the faeces
  • a high prothrombin level in blood
  • a and b

Question 95

Question
Gastric:
Answer
  • acid secretion in response to a lowered blood gugar is mediated by the hormone gastrin
  • emptying is facilitated by sympathetic nerve activity
  • acid secretion increases when histamine H2 , muscarinic M1 or gastrin receptors are activated
  • acid secretion is inhibited by the presence of food In the duodenum
  • c and d

Question 96

Question
Constipation is a recognized consequence of:
Answer
  • psychological stress
  • abnormality of the autonomic nerve supply to the esophagus
  • a diet that leaves little unabsorbed residue in the gut
  • over-activity of the thyroid gland as in thyrotoxicosis
  • a and c

Question 97

Question
Absorption of glucose by intestinal mucosal cells:
Answer
  • relies on a carrier mechanism in the cell membrane
  • is blocked not by the same agents that block renal reabsorption of glucose
  • is enhanced by blockade of active sodium transport in the cells
  • takes place mainly in the ileum
  • does not involve the same carriers that are used for the absorption of galactose

Question 98

Question
Muscle tone in the lower oesophagus is:
Answer
  • lower than tone in the middle oesophagus
  • a major factor in preventing heartburn
  • increased in pregnancy
  • decreased by gastrin
  • increased by anticholinergic drugs

Question 99

Question
Which of the following are incorrectly paired:
Answer
  • pancreatic alpha amylase-starch
  • elastase-tissue rich in elastin
  • renin-coagulated milk
  • enteropeptidase-trypsinogen
  • phospholipase A2-phospholipids

Question 100

Question
All are GIT hormones except:
Answer
  • cholecystokinin
  • gastrin
  • secretin
  • erythropoietin
  • somatosmin

Question 101

Question
Iron Is absorbed in:
Answer
  • stomach
  • duodenum
  • jejunum
  • ileum
  • colon

Question 102

Question
in infants, defecation often follows a meal. The cause of colonic contractions in this situation is:
Answer
  • gastro-ileal reflex
  • increased circulating levels of CCK
  • gastrocolic reflex
  • enterogastric reflex
  • decreased circulating levels of gastrin

Question 103

Question
Which of the following has the highest pH:
Answer
  • gastric juice
  • pancreatic juice
  • bile in GB
  • secretions of intestinal glands
  • saliva

Question 104

Question
Man is unable to digest:
Answer
  • dextrin
  • glucose
  • cellulose
  • glycogen
  • maltose

Question 105

Question
Steatorrhoea may be cooled by all factors except:
Answer
  • pancreatectomy
  • gastrin secreting tumor
  • resection of distal ileum
  • hemolytic jaundice
  • increascd amount of fat in the stools

Question 106

Question
Normal swallowing is dependent on the integrity of the:
Answer
  • 9 and 10 cranial nerves
  • pyramidal tract
  • trigeminal nerve
  • appetite center of hypothalamus
  • neurons, secreting VIP

Question 107

Question
Secretion of the intrinsic factor occurs in
Answer
  • parietal cells of the stomach
  • chief cells of the stomach
  • upper abdomen
  • alpha cells of pancreas
  • cells of the parotid gland

Question 108

Question
In which of the following is absorption of water greatest:
Answer
  • colon
  • jejunum
  • duodenum
  • stomach
  • mouth

Question 109

Question
Secretin is released by:
Answer
  • acid in duodenum
  • acid in stomach
  • cells in the liver
  • distention of colon
  • gallbladder

Question 110

Question
Vit D is essential for normal:
Answer
  • Fat absorption
  • Ca absorption
  • ADH secretion
  • Protein absorption
  • Glucose absorption

Question 111

Question
Gastrin secretion is increased by:
Answer
  • acid in the lumen of stomach
  • calcitonin
  • secretin
  • vagal discharge
  • a and b

Question 112

Question
Saliva is responsible for all except:
Answer
  • deglutition
  • dental cares prevention
  • complete digestion of proteins
  • the concentration of iodine
  • maintaining the oral pH at about 7.0

Question 113

Question
Carbonic anhydrase has a role to play in the formation of:
Answer
  • HCL by the parietal cells of the stomach
  • carbaminhaemoglobin
  • cerebrospinal fluid in the choroid plexuses
  • bile salts
  • a and b
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