sensory, short-term/working memory, and long-term memory
The three fundamental memory processes are
recognition, recall, and cueing.
encoding, storage, and retrieval.
encoding, rehearsal, and retrieval.
levels of processing, component recall, and retrieval.
The BEST reason that 60% of this class did not accurately recognize a penny from among similar distractors is because
most of you don't collect coins.
recognition memory tends to fail when there are not enough alternatives to choose from.
they have never adequately encoded the details of a penny.
they have not ever transferred the information from sensory memory to STWM.
Which of the following is NOT a possible mechanism of memory failure?
interference by other memories
too many retrieval attempts
On average, human Short-term Working Memory can hold ___ "bits" of information?
Using the logic of Loftus’s 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presentation of an auto accident. The victim's car was green. However, for half of the subjects, the experimenter casually referred to it being blue. When these subjects were later asked to remember the color of the victim's car, many said that it was blue. This is an example of the .
instant replay effect
constructive processing effect
color substitution effect
levels of processing effect
The concept of context-dependent memory indicates that the best place to study for your PSY 115 quizzes is in
your favorite study spot
in a coffee shop
Suggestibility is important because it shows that
memories are remarkably resistant to memory alteration.
memories are prone to alteration when counterexamples are later encountered.
memories can be altered by subtle comments made by others.
politicians should slant the truth-- because it works.
Mary has vivid memories of what her first kiss was like as a 13 year old. This is an example of what type of memory system?
When newer information (e.g., a French verb learned in 12th grade) interferes with the retrieval of older information (e.g., the same verb learned in Spanish in 7th grade), this is called proactive interference.
What mid-brain structure helps transfer information from Short-Term Working Memory to Long-Term Memory and vice versa?
When asked to recall all the Presidents in the history of the US, most people remember the first few presidents due to the effect; and the last few presidents due to the effect.
The goals of psychology are to
explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind.
understand, compare, and analyze human behavior.
improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth to death.
describe, understand, predict, and control behavior.
Which perspective would a researcher be taking if she were documenting how children learn through reinforcement of their actions?
Dr. Hammond has a medical degree and her practice specializes in the treatment of bipolar disorders and major depression. Dr. Hammond is most likely a
psychiatric social worker
When we conduct research within the field of psychology we gather information about a specific phenomenon and then make a prediction. This prediction is referred to as the
In a false memory experiment, half of the participants memorized a list of words with a strong "sleep" theme and half saw a list with a weak "sleep" theme. We compared the two groups' incidence for (falsely) recalling the word, "sleep". In this experiment, the independent variable was the
number of times the word "sleep" was falsely recalled by each group
the left/right side of the room
the strength of the "sleep" theme in the lists
the distractor task
none of the above
The more one texts while driving, the higher the probability of having an accident. Stated this way, there is _ correlation between the two variables.
A researcher designs an experiment to test the effects of playing video games on memory. What was the dependent variable?
scores on a memory test
playing video games
number of hours playing video games
the type of video games played
In an investigation of "new and improved" Advil, half of the participants in the study were given original Advil, while half were given the "new and improved" Advil. Those who received the original Advil were
a confounding variable.
the experimental group.
the control group.
the dependent group.
A researcher is testing the hypothesis that exercise makes people happier. Participants in the experimental group were assessed for their level of happiness on Monday while those in the control group were assessed on Saturday. What might be a confounding variable?
the day of the week
the participant's level of happiness
Which correlation is the strongest?
Dr. Borden conducts a study to examine how a persons perception of control impacts their experienced stress. She creates two conditions of control (perceived control vs. perceived lack of control) to see whether there is an impact on one's self-reported stress levels. What is the Dependent Variable?
Perception of Control
Critical thinking means making judgment based on
reason and logical evaluation
authority and expertise
What brain structure allows the two hemispheres to communicate?
When a neuron is stimulated enough, it --?--
fires an action potential.
becomes an agonist.
achieves a resting state.
becomes an antagonist.
Which label marks the location of an AXON or AXONS?
Unfolded, the human brain cortex has the area of a and is _ thick.
notebook paper; 6-12 millimeters
twin bed sheet; 1-2 millimeters
notebook paper; 2-10 millimeters
sheet of newspaper; 1-5 millimeters
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation measures the blood's oxygen level in the brain.
---?---- plays a critical role as a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscles to contract.
In the list below, each brain region is paired with a function. Which of the region-function pairs is NOT correct?
Occipital lobe - vision
Frontal lobe - executive control, planning
Temporal - control of breathing, heart rate
Parietal lobe- spatial awareness
You are walking toward someone you have a crush on and your heart starts pounding, your hands get sweaty, and your cheeks feel hot. These are effects of your .
skeletal nervous system
somatic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after a stroke. He was unable to speak in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill's difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage?
Within the neuron, neural signals are best characterized as __.
Silvio suffered a stroke and became paralyzed on his left side. The brain damage is in the __ brain hemisphere.
cannot be determined from the information provided
Which of the following coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement? (e.g., sports, musical instrument playing)
Consciousness is best defined as
your subjective experience of the external world
your ability to objectiely pay attention to important information
moving from a state of sleep to a state of wakefulness
processing of sensory informaiton without full awareness
A researcher discovers using EEG recordings that brain waves are different during the stages of the sleep cycle. The researcher is using what type of measure to study consciousness?
The biological rhythm which helps to drive our internal core body temperature, hormone production, and sleep is called the rhythm.
A split-brain client is shown a frog in her right visual field. This information is processed by
the left side of her occipital lobe.
the right side of her occipital lobe.
both sides of her occipital lobe.
her prefrontal cortex
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because the
person is not really asleep.
person's body is asleep, but the person's brain is active.
the persons brain is asleep, but the person's body is active.
the person has no awareness of being asleep.
You tell your friend Betty about a dream in which you were a giant cupcake. Betty says it means that you have an unconscious desire to drop out of college and become a baker. Betty's statement is describing the ???? content of the dream.
One major cause of insomnia is
a lack of REM sleep.
altered theta waves.
worrying about sleep.
In an experiment, researchers found that when given the word pair ocean-moon, followed by the word detergent, participants typically said the word tide. When asked to explain their word choice, participants were unaware that the word pair had influenced their response. This supports the concept of
When a person experiences changes in memory, perception, or voluntary action as a result of suggestions made by another person they are most likely experiencing
To be considered a hallucinogenic, a drug must
alter sensation and perception
alter behavioral activity
decrease emotional activity
decrease mental activity
Dr. Borden dreams about answering questions to her competency exams 2 weeks before taking the actual competency tests. This would illustrate which theory of dreaming?
Which of the following is NOT a factor in the development of addiction?
attraction to novelty and risk-taking
poor relationships with parents
inherited tendency to sensation seeking
personal beliefs that addiction is a choice
A week-old infant's parents are talking to it. Baby hears a lot of hissing, humming, and puffing. The infant is
sensing their words.
perceiving their words.
trying to interpret their words.
not able to tell anything at such a young age.
"_" theory explains how color processing works in the eye; "_" theory explains why we can "see" a colored image that is not actually there. (Must select two correct answers for credit.)
neural persistence theory
opponent processing theory
visual after-effects theory
Ann went to an audiologist for a hearing test. During the test, Ann listened for tones through earphones. The tones ranged from extremely faint to moderately soft. Ann was to raise her hand whenever she thought she heard a tone. The audiologist was testing Ann's .
aural convergence zone
just noticeable difference
The process of converting stimulus energy into neural signals is called
The "sensory homunculus" illustrates
the five different sensory receptors that humans have.
the proportion of somatosensory cortex devoted to different ares of the body.
the mean sensitivity of each of the sensory systems.
all of the above
none of the above
Which of the following is NOT true about rods?
They only respond to shades of black and grey.
They allow vision in low light.
They are concentrated in the fovea.
They are less easily fatigued than cones.
We perceive color because there is color in the electromagnetic radiation sprectrum.
_ constancy refers to the brain's inclination to see things as relatively the same size regardless of distance from the eye (one of two possible words)
Which is the structure that is primarily responsible for maintaining balance or judging our spatial orientation?
When Bill looks at his lamp alternately with his left eye and right eye, the image seems to jump from one position to another. This phenomenon illustrates .
the Gestalt principle of closure
monocular cues to depth perception
Closing your eyes and being able to touch your nose with your forefinger most accurately illustrates
any temporary change in behavior.
a change in behavior due to maturation
any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
any permanent change in behavior due to maturation.
In a classical conditioning situation, the learned behavior (the response) is
Of the four basic elements of classical conditioning, the one to which the organism learns to respond to is the
Every time someone flushes a toilet in your dorm bathroom the shower becomes very hot and causes you to jump back. Over time, you begin to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, but BEFORE the water temperature changes. What is the unconditioned response?
jumping away in response to the toilet flushing
the hot water
jumping away in response to the toilet flush
jumping away in response to the hot water
Young Penelope has a fear of small dogs...but not large dogs. This is an illustration of
Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov's analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as _??.
the law of effect
an unconditioned stimulus
a conditioned stimulus
an unconditioned response
a conditioned response
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called __??.
none of the above
For every 10 boxes of cookies that Lisa sells, her girl scout troop gets a dollar. Lisa is being reinforced on a ???_ schedule of reinforcement?
??? is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ???___ is an example of a secondary reinforcer
A sandwich : a gold star
A gold star : money
Food : water
A gold star : candy
In this class you have the option of skipping the final exam IF you have earned an A up to that point. This is an example of
none of the above
While in an operant chamber, a rat receives an electric shock whenever he presses the lever. As a result the rat stops pressing the lever. This is an example of _???__.
John and Jessica sit outside to watch for shooting stars. What type of reinforcement schedule is being illustrated in this example?
Which level of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy is epitomized by the U.S. Army slogan "Be all that you can be"?
Destruction or defect in which brain structure can drastically alter eating behavior?
Jennifer will only perform to the best of her ability when she receives really big tips. Jennifer's performance is influenced by __ motivation.
The tendency of the body to maintain a steady physiological state of functioning is called -----------------------.
The Yerkes-Dodson Law describes the rule that your performance on a task will be optimal if your level of arousal is -----------. (Assume that the task is neither very easy nor very hard.)
cannot be determined from the information given
If Zita has a higher level of testosterone compared with other women, she will be most likely to
want to engage in sexual activity more frequently.
have larger breasts.
easily reach the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle.
have decreased levels of estradiol.
From an evolutionary perspective, it makes sense that men would like to have more sexual partners than women. This is because
women lose value as potential mates with each partner they have had previously.
having multiple partners makes men appear more desirable.
women are less likely to have healthy babies with multiple partners.
men can increase their number of offspring with multiple partners.
Jason and Cora are riding on a roller coaster, which is producing high levels of arousal. They attribute their aroused state to romantic feelings for each other and feel they are falling in love. The effect of the roller coaster is from the _??? associated with emotion.
primary evolutionary adaptations
Lisa does not like going to her sister Megan’s piano recitals, but she finds that if she forces herself to smile during the recital, she will ?__, as predicted by the ?__.
begin to feel happy; facial-feedback hypothesis
begin to feel happy; Cannon-Bard theory
not feel any differently than she did before; facial-feedback hypothesis
not feel any differently than she did before; Cannon-Bard theory
Tom walks into a dark alley and sees a man wielding a knife at him. Tom believes he is afraid because his heart is pounding . He most likely is a student of _??___.
Winona has difficulty determining how fearful someone is based on the person’s facial expressions. Her friends worry that she can no longer processes the emotional significance of stimuli due to brain damage and think there is a problem with Winona’s ???
Blake is waiting to hear whether he has been accepted to medical school. He is so anxious that he is having trouble working. To cope with the situation, he tries to keep himself from thinking about it by practicing the guitar. In doing so, Blake is dealing with his feelings through ??.
When Dave started driving, he had to use a navigation system to get around his neighborhood. Over time, Dave could drive through his neighborhood without the navigation system because he knew where all of the streets and roads were. Dave has most likely developed a ???__ of his neighborhood.
set of defining attributes
series of individual prototypes
Jethro believes that all elderly people have difficulty hearing and understanding. Whenever he interacts with an elderly person, Jethro automatically speaks loudly and slowly. Jethro is applying his __ of the elderly in these interactions.
Which of the following best describes problem solving?
overcoming obstacles to get to your desired goal state
selecting the best option from among a set of alternatives
reasoning from general information to specific information
evaluating a conclusion to see if it is valid
Lauren is baking a cake but realizes that she is missing ingredients. She has to make a cake, so she finds a new recipe that will work with the ingredients she has. Lauren is engaging in
Using algorithms to think has the advantage of ??? and the disadvantage of ???.
requiring minimal thinking; not always working
not always working; requiring minimal thinking
always working; requiring effortful thinking
requiring effortful thinking; always working
According to the paradox of choice, having some choice is good, and having even more choice
makes people feel more satisfied with their decision.
can be frustrating and impair thinking.
forces people to use an algorithm to make a decision.
allows us to have insight about what we really want.
According to the video we watched in class, maximizers are likely to make ?? decisions before a purchase, but actually feel ?? satisfied with the purchase later
After struggling to solve a physics problem, you take a break for lunch. When you go back to work on the problem, the solution suddenly pops into your head. In this case you used _??___ to solve the problem.
a mental set
Although many successful musicians may not have “book smarts,” they certainly have the “street smarts” needed to succeed in the music industry. The theory of intelligence that best accounts for this observation about “book smarts” and “street smarts” in musicians is the ??___ theory.
Which of the following is NOT an example of an analogical representation?
a subway map
a family tree
a sign language gesture for “please”
a diagram of the human body
Jane is taking the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS). Afterward, Jane says that she liked creating stories from different pictures and recreating patterns with blocks. It appears that Jane enjoyed the __ scales of the test.
Terry is making a multilayer wedding cake. While trying to make sure it does not collapse, he remembered a bridge he saw that had an interesting support system. He applies that support system to the cake structure to make sure it does not collapse. Terry _??__ to solve his problem.
used an analogy
What behavioral characteristic is most strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease?
If people did not possess dopamine neurons, addiction to nicotine would be
strong at first and weak later.
Cohen purposely infected study participants with live cold virus. He found that those most likely to "catch" the cold were those who
had been severely chilled in cold water.
had not eaten a balanced diet during the week.
reported higher levels of stress.
all of the above.
The coping mechanism that involves changing the way you feel or emotionally react to a stressor is know as ?????
a defense mechnaism
You experience a large disruption that threatens a central part of your life and is very difficult to deal with. Most likely, soon you will experience body changes, thoughts, and actions associated with the psychological process of ??
a daily hassle.
Adrenaline is a catecholamine, the release of which is stimulated by the ???.
Suri is under a lot of stress between family issues, work, and college. She can barely get her work done, eats much more than usual and does not sleep well most nights. Suri is most likely in the ????? phase of the GAS.
Which of the following would describe the tend-and-befriend response of a person experiencing great stress from his job?
Luigi is worn out and is not sure if he can continue at his job.
Bruce constantly complains to his family about his mean boss.
Joseph strikes his boss in the face after she threated to fire him.
Manny tries to form strong relationships with the new workers.
People are most likely to adopt a problem-focused coping strategy when they perceive the stressor as ??
Sasha finds her job difficult and has had a hard time learning how to do some of the tasks that are required of her. She decides to put in some extra hours to learn how to complete the tasks, and she is confident that in doing so she will be able to perform the tasks well. According to research discussed in your textbook, what is a likely outcome?
Sasha will become physically ill from all the extra hours she is putting in.
Sasha will feel less stressed and happier.
Sasha will become a friendlier person because she will learn to teach herself new things.
Sasha will become increasingly negative and even depressed.
According to your textbook, a large study found what type of relationship between peoples’ attitudes and their health?
People with positive attitudes are healthier than people with negative attitudes.
People with positive attitudes are unhealthier than people with negative attitudes.
People with positive attitudes are equally as healthy as people with negative attitudes
The results of the study were inconclusive.
Kristine is experiencing some depression and memory problems. To reduce both of these, Kristin’s doctor is most likely to recommend
using her social support network.
increasing her self-esteem.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by ???
real imagined or implied presence of others
In Asch's study of conformity, people had to compare different lengths of lines and then select the one which was most similar to the target line. Which factor increased the rate of conformity?
when the task was more difficult
when the number of confederates increased
when the number of confederates decreased
when the participants were given 2 chances to respond
All of the following are ways to avoid Groupthink EXCEPT
allow expression of ideas
respectful treatment of group members
limiting critical thinking about the best options
This is a change in behavior due to the direct request from someone else.
The Stanford Prison Experiments were testing the power of the ?? on human behavior.
intelligence of participants
attitudes of participants
Getting people to comply with a second, larger request after they comply with an initial small request is called the ??? technique.
door in the face
foot in the door
Laura's room is almost always a mess. Her parents attribute this to Laura's laziness. This is an example of what type of attribution?
Linda has a stereotype about how a car mechanic behaves. The main advantage of her belief is that it ??. The main disadvantage is that it ??__.
allows for rapid processing; can lead to errors
identifies critical information; is a mental shortcut
is a mental shortcut; can be changed too easily
Which of the following is NOT one of the three things that people do to reduce cognitive dissonance?
change their behavior
change their attitude
form a new attitude
ignore the conflict
You observe the cashier at Caribou get mad and yell at the customer in front of you. Which of the following best illustrates you succumbing to the fundamental attribution error? You think to yourself, ???
the person in front of me is an angry person
the person in front of me is probably late for class
the cashier is an angry person
the cashier has probably had a very bad day
The more that Edward sees Bella on campus, the more positive his attitudes become toward her. Edward’s attitude is becoming more positive with every encounter because of ???
the mere exposure effect.
the elaboration likelihood model.
Love that is a state of intense longing and desire is ?? love. Love that is a strong commitment to care for and support a partner is ?? love.
The lemon juice experiment conducted in class attempted to measure which personality trait?
Openness to Experience
Freud's psychodynamic theory has been completely disregarded since the advent of new technology that has allowed us to understand the brain differently
For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ??_.
Projective tests make use of ??? stimuli.
paper and pencil test
How is age related to stability of personality?
Children’s personalities are more stable than older adults.
There is some stability at any age but particularly after age 50.
Age and personality stability are unrelated.
Personality traits are equally stable at any age range.
What is Freud’s term for the executive of the personality that develops realistic plans for obtaining gratification of an individual's desires?
none of the above
According to the lemon juice experiment, participants who are high scorers on introversion ?? to the lemon juice.
do not respond
Ted is friendly, loves to tells jokes at parties, and is perceived by others as warm and considerate. On which two of the Big Five traits would you expect Ted to obtain high scores?
extraversion and conscientiousness
relatedness and Introversion
neuroticism and openness to experience
openness to experience and conscientiousness
What is one criticism of projective tests?
They are inappropriate for use with children.
They are too simple in their administration and scoring.
They have low validity and reliability.
They fail to take into account differences in the testing environments.
Which structure of the brain was responsible for the reaction to the lemon juice in the lemon juice experiment conducted in class to demonstrate a biological basis to extraversion?
Ascending Reticular Activation Rystem (ARAS)
Sensory Motor Cortex
Eddie failed his driver’s license test. When asked why he failed, Eddie says the questions were not fair and the driving instructor did not teach him properly. According to expectancy theory, Eddie probably has an
internal sense of determinism.
external sense of determinism
internal locus of control.
external locus of control.
John tends to appreciate new and novel ideas and has a love for the arts. What personality trait describes John the best?
Openness to Experience
What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior?
Any behavior that does not allow a person to function within, or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life is considered
Fear of public speaking and stage fright are both examples of this type of phobia.
Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is called
a social phobia
a specific phobia
George is suffering from an obsessive-compulsive disorder. If he tries to stop his compulsive behaviors, he is likely to experience
Anxiety, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, and concentration problems that occur for more than 1 month after a major stressor are likely symptoms of this.
acute stress disorder
posttraumatic stress disorder
pretraumatic stress disorder
general stress disorder
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seems to be related to
low levels of thyroxine
low levels of melatonin
high levels of thyroxine
high levels of melatonin
In which type of schizophrenia is an individual most likely to have delusions of grandeur?
Postpartum depression is diagnosed if the onset of major depression is
prior to the birth of the baby
one year after the birth of the baby
within four weeks of the birth of the baby
after enduring a cesarean birth
Which of the following statements about antisocial personality disorder is TRUE?
Most people with this disorder are vicious killers.
Most people with this disorder are men.
People with this disorder suffer terrible guilt but commit crimes anyway.
People with this disorder feel emotions very deeply and intensely.
Applying the medical model to abnormal behavior has allowed for
the DSM to be updated
the use of medical terminology within psychological disorders
the development of abnormal disorders
What do psychologists call disorders that are found only in particular cultures?