PHSI3012 Midsem


PHSI3012 Midsem
Michael Jardine
Quiz by Michael Jardine, updated more than 1 year ago
Michael Jardine
Created by Michael Jardine about 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question 1

Choose the most correct answer to complete this sentence. A carcinoma is ____________________
  • A tumour of circulating blood cells
  • A benign tumour of glandular origin
  • An aggressive tumour of blood cell origin localised to the lymph nodes
  • A tumour of epithelial cell origin

Question 2

An activating mutation of H-Ras proto-oncogene leads to self-sufficiency in growth signal. Which of the following reasons best explains the mechanism?
  • Cyclin D expression is decreased in the absence of mitogen
  • C-myc activity is increased in the absence of mitogen
  • A decrease in E2-F transcription factor activity is stimulated in the absence of a mitogen
  • An increase in hypophosphorylated pRB is stimulated in the absence of a mitogen

Question 3

Why is p53 a critical tumour suppressor gene?
  • It is an essential component of the apoptotic pathway
  • It repairs DNA damage
  • It has key roles in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and maintenance of genetic stability
  • It is essential for normal development

Question 4

The progression of breast cancer from primary lesion to metastatic disease is a multifactorial process. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT:
  • A cancer cell escapes its local environment by initially invading the basement membrane
  • An epithelial cell undergoes a process termed mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition during initial vessel invasion
  • Invasion of the lymph and blood vessels is an early step in tumour cell dissemination
  • Disseminated tumour cells can lie dormant for years before reinitiating a program of cell growth to colonise a distal site

Question 5

Below is a population doubling vs time graph (time on the X axis and population doublings on the Y axis). If a cell culture is proliferating at point X, what would need to happen to the culture in order to continue proliferating to point Y?
  • The cell culture would continue to grow to point Y if a tumour suppressor mechanism was activated.
  • The cell population is immortal, so the cells will continue to grow past point Y indefinitely.
  • Cells would continue to proliferate to point Y if a tumour suppressor gene was inactivated.
  • The cells will enter crisis, a rare cell will escape crisis by activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism, and the culture will be immortal.

Question 6

Our lab obtained an immortal cell line from a collaborator, and we don’t know whether the telomeres are being maintained by telomerase or the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanism. We performed assays to determine the telomere maintenance mechanism and the results are listed below. Can we determine which method of telomere maintenance has been activated?
  • Unable to determine which TMM has been activated
  • Telomerase
  • Neither telomerase nor ALT have been activated
  • ALT

Question 7

Xenografts can be injected into a number of different locations depending on what aspect of metastasis is to be examined. Which of the following injections sites best assess intravasation:
  • Subcutaneous
  • Intraductal
  • Tail vein
  • Tibia

Question 8

Breast cancer preferentially undergoes bone metastasis. During this process RANKL.
  • Is expressed by cancer cells enabling osteoblast differentiation
  • Is secreted by cancer cells acting directly on osteoclasts to induce osteolysis
  • Is secreted from bone matrix following osteolysis and along with other growth factors promotes further cancer cell growth
  • Is secreted by osteoblasts and induces osteoclast differentiation

Question 9

Which of the following pairs are CORRECT?
  • Melanocytes – pigment
  • Langerhans cells – cornified layer
  • Keratinocytes – immune response
  • Fibroblasts – UV protection

Question 10

Complete the following sentence. In sunlight reaching the earth’s surface ____________________.
  • Very low wavelengths, below 290nm, are absorbed by wet surfaces
  • Longer wavelengths like UVA penetrate less far into the skin than UVB
  • Vitamin D is produced by wavelengths in the UVB spectrum
  • UVB is mostly responsible for the warmth of the sun

Question 11

Glivec is the first “rationally designed” drug we have produced. Which answer most correctly describes the mechanism by which Glivec treats leukaemia?
  • Glivec binds to an important functional site in BCR
  • Glivec inhibits the retinoic acid receptor α hormone receptor
  • Glivec inhibits function of the ABL kinase
  • Glivec induces cellular differentiation to a terminally mature cell type

Question 12

The earliest response to decreased blood pressure is:
  • Angiotensin II induced vasodilation of the arterioles.
  • Conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I by renin.
  • Angiotensin I conversion to Angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme.
  • Renin release from the hypothalamus.

Question 13

Which ONE of the following statements regarding Essential or Primary Hypertension is INCORRECT? (there were two)
  • Can be linked with elevated levels of Renin.
  • Associated with risk factors such as diet, genetics, age, and smoking.
  • Is due to increased blood volume due to causes such as primary aldosteronism.
  • Accounts for 90% of all hypertension cases, with the other 10% of cases due to unknown causes.

Question 14

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in the RVLM of a *NORMOTENSIVE* control rat?
  • Activation of Ang II receptors causes an increase in blood pressure, while blockade of Ang II receptors has little effect.
  • Activation of Ang II receptors causes an increase in blood pressure, and blockade of Ang II receptors causes a fall in blood pressure.
  • Activation of Ang II receptors causes a fall in blood pressure, while blockade of Ang II receptors has little effect.
  • Activation of Ang II receptors causes a fall in blood pressure, and blockade of Ang II receptors causes a rise in blood pressure.

Question 15

Which of the following statements best describes the transportation of lipids throughout the body:
  • LDL carry triglycerides from peripheral tissues back to the liver.
  • Cholesterol transport is primarily mediated by LDL & VLDL.
  • Triglycerides are primarily transported from the gut and liver to peripheral tissues.
  • HDL removes cholesterol from the liver to counter the effects of LDL.
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