NuTriTioN Note on OverVIEW!!! FUNNESS!, created by crletitrain on 17/04/2013.
Note by crletitrain, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by crletitrain about 11 years ago

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Body Mass Index (BMI) Interpretation:                                                                                                           <18.5....Underweight (increased risk of health problems                                                         18.5-24.9...Normal                                                                                                                             25-29.9...Overweight  30-39...Obese (increased risk of health problems)  >40...Morbid Obesity (very high risk of health problems) 

Evaluating Body Weight Body Composition                   Measure of body fat and lean muscle massDensitometry: Underwater Weight Anthropometry: measurement of skin-fold thickness using skin-fold calipers or body circumferences....Most inaccurate measurement available...dependent on person taking measurement and degree of training  Conductivity: Bioelectric impedance Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)- considered most accurate Bod Pod- Air displacement...expensive Biolectric impedance Tanita Body Fat Monitory/Scale: Accuracy depends upon several factors, current hydration status makes results variable (least invasive & fairly accurate) 

Waist to Hip Ratio: valuable indicator of fat distributionApple-shaped fat patterning: Mostly seen in men; increased risk for chronic diseases Pear-Shaped fat patterning: no significant increased risk for chronic disease; mostly seen in womenRisk WAist CirCumFerEnce: >40 in Males >35 in Females 

Appropriate Weight Loss No more than 1-2 lbs/week3,500 kcal = 1lb 1lb/week burn 500kcal/day2lb/week burn 1000kcal/day(Eat 500kcal less and burn 500kcal)

Basal Metabolic Rate....BMREnergy Expended to maintain basal or resting functions of the body Used to maintain Life:  Circulation  Respiration  Temperature  Synthesis of new tissue  Nerve activity  Hormone secretion 

BMR INCREASES with: more Lean body mass, Stress, Periods of Growth, Illness and Fever 

BMR DECREASES with: Age---Older  During energy restriction (fasting & starvation)

BMR Calcuation: Men- Weight (kg)*1.0* 24hrs  Female- Weight (kg)*0.9*24hrs

Limitations of BMI:::::May overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build May underestimate body fat in older person and others who have less muscle mass

Morbid Obesity: Exceeding 100% of normal weight 

Calculating BMI: Body wt (kg) / [ht (m)]squared                      or Body wt (lbs) * 703/ [ht(ins)] squared 

Components of Energy Expenditure BMR= 60-75%Basal Metabolism Rate TEF= 5-10% Thermic Effect of FoodEnergy expended to digest, absorb, transport metabolize and store food Phsycial activity= 15-35%More muscles used, the greater energy expended intensity, duration, body size 

Direct calorimetry: measures the amount of heat the body releases Indirect calorimetry: measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production 

Thrifty Gene Theory: Gene causes people to be energetically thrifty expend LESS energy than others & gain weight 

Set-Point Theory: Each person's weight stays within a small range Body compensates for changes in energy balance 

Proteins that Affect The regulation of Appetite and Storage of Body FAT

Leptin:   Reduces Food Intake  Produced by body FAT  Less effect found in Obese 

Ghrelin  Increases Appetite  Increases hunger, and decrease about an hour after  Not diminished with Obesity 

Peptide YY (PYY)  Decrease Appetite  Released in the GI tract  Inhibits Food intake 

Overweight and Obesity Linked to: Hypertension  Dyslipidemia  Type 2 Diabetes & Gestational  Heart Disease  Stroke  Gallbladder disease  Osteoarthritis  Sleep apnea  Cancers  Depression  Premature fetal death  Neural tube defects  Complication during labor or delivery 

Treatment for OBESITY: Low-calorie diet & Regular exercise Prescription Meds Surgery: Vertical banded gastroplasty       (Reversible)  Gastric bypass                                  (Not reversible)  Gastric banding                                  (Reversible) 

Weight Loss Drugs:Meridia (Sibutramine): decreases appetite by altering brain neurotransmitter             Side effects: Increased BP  Constipation   Anorexia  Nausea  Dizziness  Insomnia  Dry mouth 

Xenical (Orlistat): Inhibits pancreatic lipase & decreases fat absorption           Side Effects:  Abdominal Pain  Fatty and loose Stool  Leaky stool  Decreased absorption  Flatulence

Surgery: Only for Morbid ObesityVaried Outcomes & possible complications Very Successful Should not be last choice  

Four Components of FITNESS  Flexibility  Strength  Cardiorespiratory fitness  Body composition 

Benefits of Physical Activity Reduces Risk for:  Heart disease  Stroke  High BP  Obesity  Type 2 Diabetes  Osteoporosis  Colon Cancer  Despite the Benefits ...... more than HALF US adults do not do sufficient physical activity...... 26% US adults do no leisure time physical activity....... Less than 30% high school students don't participate in daily physical education  

Sound FIT Program:  Meets your personal goals  It is fun  Includes variety and consistency  Overloads the body....OVERLOAD principle: Additional phsycial demands on the body to improve fitness  Warm-up & Cool-down

The FIT Principle: Frequency Intensity Time of Activity 

Calculating Maximum Heart Rate MHR= 220 - your age If fit: * 75%If sedentary: * 50%

Fuels Used:  ATP....1-3 seconds  Creatine Phosphate...3-15 seconds (produces ATP...30 seconds - 2 minutes) Carbohydrates....high intensity work  FAT...low intensity work/long duration   

Fuel for Physical Activity:  SPRINT...ATP/CP (0-3 secs) 100m dash...50% ATP/CP & 50% Carb (10-12 secs) 1500m race...94% Carb & 6% ATP/CP (4-6mins) 10km race...60% Carb & 40% FAT (32-40mins) Marathon...75% Carb & 20% FAT, 5% other (2.5-3hrs) Daylong hike...65% FAT & 35% Carb (5.5-7hrs)

Nutrition for Physical Activity: Energy Need-         Higher for Athletes, different needs for MALE and FEMALES, Depends on Body size & type of Physical Activity Recommended diet includes:         Critical Period (3-4 hrs after)-optimize glycogen storage & muscle protein synthesis         Carbohydrate loading          Protein          Vitamin B         45-65% Carbohydrates, 15-25% FAT, 12-20% Protein    Maintaining water balance is critical for physically active people 

HEAT EXHAUSTION- occurs when exercise causes loss of body fluids and then depletion of blood volume Sweating inefficient at 75% humidity or greater Rapid FATIGUE                            SYMPtoms:  profuse sweating  headache  dizziness  muscle weakness  flushing of the skin  visual disturbances 

HEAT STROKE- occurs if body's temperature regulation mechanisms fail Body temp is above 104degrees Hot, humid environment FATAL for athletes Sports Drinks help                           SYMPtoms:  rapid pulse  hot  dry skin  high bp  weakness 

Nutrition Altered in Athletes: Iron       Sports anemia...increase in blood water  Calcium        Female Athlete Triad  B vitamins         Increased energy metabolism 

Female Athlete Triad:  Eating disorder Osteoporosis  Amenorrhea 

Ergonomic Aids:         Substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance Increase Muscle Strength: GHB DHEA Creatine Anabolic Steroids 

Increase Energy Levels and optimize fuel : Caffeine CarnitineChromium Ephedrine Ribose 

Eating Disorder: Psychiatric condition involving extreme body dissatisfaction and long term eating patterns 

Disordered Eating: Variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors used to reduce weight 

Multiple Factors contributing to the development of an eating Disorder: family environment unrealistic media images  sociocultural values  personality traits  genetic & biological factors 

                                           Personality Traits Anorexia Nervosa                                         Bulimia Nervosa Obsessive-compulsive behaviors                   Impulsive Perfectionism                                              Low Self-esteem Socially inhibited                                          Extroverted Compliant                                                    Erratic personality style that Emotionally restrained                                     seeks attention & admiration 

                          Definitions Anorexia Nervosa- Medical disorder in which unhealthful behaviors are used to maintain body weight less than 85% of expected weight FAMILY environment is RIGID structure Bulimia Nervosa- Eating disorder characteriaed by binge eating (eating a large amount of food in a short period of time) followed by purging (attempt to rid the body of unwanted food) FAMILY environment is UNSTABLE organization 

                                      HEALTH RISK: Anorexia Nervosa  electrolyte imbalance  cardiovascular problems  gastrointestinal problems (weak and loses ability to function) bone problems 

Bulimia Nervosa  Electrolyte imbalance Gastrointestinal problems  Dental problems  Calluses  Swelliing 

                        Symptoms: Anorexia Nervosa  extremely restrictive eating practice  self-starvation  intense fear of weight gain  amenorrhea  unhealthful body image Bulimia Nervosa  Recurrent episodes of binge eating  recurrent inappropriate behavior to compensate for binge eating  Average binge eating 2x week for 3 months  negative body image

          Ways to Purge: Vomiting Laxatives Fasting for days Excessive exercise other means 

          How to tell if someone has bulimia:  Large amounts of food disappear  Frequent trips to the bathroom after a meal  Frequent smells of vomit  Excessive Exercise  Withdrawal from usual friend and family  Comments about weight loss or diet concerns 

None of these last long enough to cause the person serious illness, but can progress to an eating disorder

      Three Types: Binge-eating Chronic Overeating        Night-Eating syndrome Chronic Dieting 

Symptoms:  often overweight  Lack of control during binging  Chatoic eating behaviors (eating too fast, too much, alone) Negative self-esteem, poor body image

Binge Eating: Foods eaten during binging are often high in fat and sugar 

Night-Eating Syndrome:             Symptoms: Eat majority of energy between 8pm-6am  Get up to eat Characterized by Depressed mood Health risk: OBESITY 

                                            Chronic Dieting                    Health Risk Poor nutrient and energy intakes decreased caloric intake....causing inadequate vitamin and mineral intake decreased energy expenditure decreased ability to exercise increased risk of psychiatric eating disorder 

Treatment for EAting Disorders: Successful if involve  patient  physician  nutritional counselors  psychiatric counselors  family & friends Treatment plans may include: Nutritional rehabilitation, Psychosocial interventions, Medications 

                                TREATMENT for Anorexia Nervosa: 1. Restore healthy weight 2. Treat complications 3. Encourage healthful behavior 4. correct dysfunctional feelings 5. Enlist help from family & friends Bulimia Nervosa: Identify and modify the events that trigger binging and purging behaviorsMonitor and alter thought patterns related to food and body imageInclude family &friends  

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

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