Rebels and Redcoats: The Road to Revolution After the French and Indian War, the British controlled a vast territory in North America. To limit settlement and "keep the peace", Britain issued the Proclamation Act of 1763. The proclamation said the colonists cannot move past the Appalachian Mountains. It allowed the British government to control westward movements. It slowed colonists from moving away from the coast where important markets and investments were. Colonists saw this as a limit of their freedom! The French and Indian War left Britain with a 150 million dollar debt. The King and Parliament felt it was only fair that colonists pay part of the costs. To keep all the money, George Greenville the British Prime Minister decided to take action against smuggling in the colonies. Parliament decided to authorize writs of assistance (unlimited search warrant) that allowed customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggled goods. Quartering Act was a law created by Parliament requiring colonists to quarter or house, British soldiers and provide them with supplies out of their own pocket. It was created in order to reduce the costs of enforcing the Proclamation Act. Greenville tried to increase tax revenue and had the Parliament pass the Sugar Act in 1764. The law lowered the tax on molasses but also authorized officers to seize goods from smugglers without going to court.
Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765It placed a tax on almost all printed materials, including newspapers, wills, and playing cards. This was a direct tax collected at the time of purchase. Because Parliament did this without consulting the colonial legislatures Parliament ignored the colonial tradition of self-government. So the Virginia House of Burgess passed a resolution, or formal expression of opinion, declaring only it had the right to tax its citizens as a protest. Colonists were being taxed without their consent and without Representation!Sons of LibertyA secret society formed by colonists to oppose British policies, the King and Parliament. Led by Sam Adams. In Boston there were staged protests against British Laws. Promoted "No Taxation Without Representation!" (I need to be represented in government). They attacked customs officials and destroyed official stamps. Delegates from nine colonies met in New York at the Stamp Act Congress. They drafted a petition to the king and Parliament that the colonies could not be taxed except by their own local assemblies. They urged boycotts of British goods. Merchants, farmers, and artisans signed non-importation agreements. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766. It was a victory for the colonists, but at the same time Parliament passed the Declaratory Act in that said Parliament has the right to tax and make decisions for the British colonies in all cases.
Townshend ActsA set of laws to pay for troops in the Colonies. A tax on imported goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. An indirect tax collected before the goods enter the colonies, and colonists were not shown the tax on their receipts. The law also allowed officials to search for smuggled goods without a warrant.Boston MassacreTo try and control the colonies Parliament sent two regiments of troops to Boston. Some of the soldiers were rude, some stole goods, and some competed for off-hour jobs. Colonists insult the British troops guarding the Custom's House (where taxes were collected). Tensions reached a peak on March 5, 1770 colonists and soldiers were involved in a scuffle. Soldiers fired into the crowd and five were killed. Among the dead were Crispus Attucks, a dockworker who was half African- American and half Native-American. The colonists dubbed this incident as The Boston Massacre and it was used by the Sons of Liberty as Anti-British propaganda. Some of the soldiers were tried for murder. John Adams (future President and Sam Adams cousin) defended the British soldiers. Six were found not guilty and two were branded on the thumb, and released. Colonists called for stronger boycotts, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts except for the tax on tea. Samuel Adams revived the Boston committees of correspondence, which circulated writings about colonists grievances against Britain.
Tea Act & The Boston Tea PartyIt gave the British East India Company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying taxes. It made their tea less expensive than any other in the colonies. Colonists vowed to keep East India ships from unloading. In Boston, the governor ordered three tea ships unloaded. Boston Sons of Liberty dressed up as mohawks and threw three chest of tea overboard. King George III realized he was losing control of the colonies. Intolerable ActsA series of laws called by the British the Coercive Acts. Created to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party. The acts closed the port of Boston until they paid for the destroyed tea, banned meetings in public places, and established a curfew. This united the colonies who supported Boston by sending money and food complaining that the Intolerable Acts violated their acts as people.
Quick Notes on The Quebec Act and The First Continental CongressQuebec Act It set up a permanent government for Quebec. It granted religious freedom to French Catholics. It gave Quebec the area west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the Ohio River. Upset the colonists. First Continental Congress Representatives from 12 colonies except for Georgia met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in September 1774. Voted to ban all trade with England until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. Asked the colonies to form a militia. Asked to meet again in May 1775.
Road to revolution
Tea act & Boston tea party
the quebec act and first contintental congress