Superpower Geographies


Key themes and case studies for the Superpower Geographies section of Edexcel A2 Geography Unit 3
Mind Map by jamesnchlsn, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jamesnchlsn over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Superpower Geographies
  1. Superpower Influence
    1. Economic
      1. Wealth allows 'export' of power, purchase of resources and influence over trade
        1. 5 of top 10 richest companies from USA (776 of top 2000)
          1. Role of TNCs in overseas markets
          2. Military
            1. Military force has historically been major influence in determining political power
              1. 45% of global military spending by USA
                1. Nuclear weapons
                  1. Personnel
                    1. Satellites
                      1. Intelligence & Espionage
                      2. 'P5' permanent members of UN Security Council (USA, China, Russia, UK, France)
                      3. Cultural
                        1. Dominant culture of a nation adopted/ or respected by other nations.
                          1. Americanization
                            1. Often largely brand driven
                            2. Can be a source of economic power and influence
                              1. Religion
                                1. Food
                                  1. Music
                                    1. Technology
                                    2. Geographical
                                      1. physical sphere of influence a superpower has
                                        1. Russia's size (+14 borders) gives it more dominance in Arctic and more gas reserves
                                          1. USA has large sea borders owith control over Pacific and Atlantic
                                        2. "a country with the capacity to project dominating power anywhere in the world, sometimes in more than one region at a time."
                                          1. Criteria
                                            1. SIZE
                                              1. = more resources, wealth & larger economy
                                                1. More neighbours (e.g. Russia: 14)
                                                2. POPULATION
                                                  1. Economic growth requires sufficient number of workers
                                                    1. Cheap labour promotes growth (e.g. NICs)
                                                      1. Larger population gives greater presence on international markets (e.g. EU)
                                                        1. But some countries have promoted significant growth with limited pop. (e.g. Singapore, Monaco)
                                                        2. RESOURCES
                                                          1. Countries with resources necessary for economic growth in theory gives significant power
                                                            1. ...but not necessarily powerful...
                                                              1. May export with little added value
                                                                1. Control by foreign TNCs
                                                                  1. Profits go offshore
                                                            2. Shifting patterns of power
                                                              1. Collapse of Soviet Union
                                                                1. 1985
                                                                  1. late 1980s
                                                                    1. 1989-1991
                                                                      1. States within USSR rebel using new freedoms and claim soverienty
                                                                        1. 1989: Fall of Berlin wall
                                                                        2. Economic failure & food shortages
                                                                        3. President Gorbachev's reforms
                                                                          1. PERESTROIKA - private ownership of small businesses
                                                                            1. GLASNOST - freedom of speech
                                                                      2. Colonial rule
                                                                        1. British Raj in India
                                                                          1. Imperialism
                                                                            1. New Delhi built by British (including 'India Gate' based on Champs-Élysées)
                                                                              1. Introduction on Indian railways
                                                                                1. Cultural imperialism
                                                                                  1. Cricket (India's national sport)
                                                                                    1. Tea (taken from China and grown in India)
                                                                                      1. English language
                                                                                    2. INDEPENDENCE
                                                                                      1. Financial pressures post-WW2
                                                                                        1. Anti-colonial movements (e.g. Gandhi)
                                                                                          1. Wider break up of British Empire
                                                                                            1. 15th August 1947
                                                                                          2. IMPERIALISM - a relationship of political, economic or cultural control between two geographical areas.
                                                                                            1. COLONIALISM - the political rule of one nation by another.
                                                                                              1. COLONISATION - the physical settling of emmigrants from a colonial power in a colony.
                                                                                                1. HEGEMONY - indirect imperial control by indirect power (and threat of intervention), rather than by direct force.
                                                                                                2. "emerging powers"
                                                                                                  1. Emergence of BRICs
                                                                                                    1. Brazil, Russia, India, China are emerging powers
                                                                                                      1. Also Mexico and Gulf states verge on this group
                                                                                                        1. Very diverse - only China capable of rivalling USA
                                                                                                      2. MINTs
                                                                                                        1. Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey
                                                                                                          1. Term coined by Jim O'Neill in 2014
                                                                                                        2. Rapid growth
                                                                                                          1. Large populations
                                                                                                            1. Regional influence
                                                                                                              1. Market economies
                                                                                                                1. Key resources
                                                                                                                  1. Manufacturing sector
                                                                                                                    1. Theories for superpower growth
                                                                                                                      1. Modernisation Theory (Rostow's Model)


                                                                                                                        1. Developed in 1960s based on study of 15 European countries
                                                                                                                          1. Suggested all countries have potential to 'break free' of poverty and develop in five linear stages.
                                                                                                                            1. Traditional Society
                                                                                                                              1. Pre-conditions for take off
                                                                                                                                1. Take off
                                                                                                                                  1. Drive to maturity
                                                                                                                                    1. High mass consumption
                                                                                                                                      1. consumerism; goods; tertiary sector
                                                                                                                                      2. diversification; innovation; investment; independence
                                                                                                                                      3. industrialisation; investment; regional growth; political change
                                                                                                                                      4. surplus; specialisation; trading; infrastructure
                                                                                                                                      5. subsistence; barter; agriculture
                                                                                                                                      6. Outdated (1960s) and oversimplified
                                                                                                                                        1. Assumes all countries start at same level with same resources/population
                                                                                                                                          1. Ignores role of aid in leaving traditional society. Aid debt is a burden for take off.
                                                                                                                                            1. Underestimates development of nations at expense of others (colonialism)
                                                                                                                                              1. Former colonies had certain aspects disproportionately accelerated (e.g. Indian parliament)
                                                                                                                                      7. World System theory
                                                                                                                                        1. Economic growth passes through phases based on key new technologies.
                                                                                                                                          1. e.g. 1770-1850: Industrial Revolution; cotton, steam engines; UK
                                                                                                                                            1. e.g. 1945-90: Cold war era; white & consumer goods; Japan & Asian Tigers
                                                                                                                                            2. Accounts for staggered growth of BRICs, MINTs and NICs
                                                                                                                                              1. Immanuel Wallestein
                                                                                                                                              2. Dependency Theory
                                                                                                                                                1. Maintains developed world's 'lifestyle' cheaply and efficiently
                                                                                                                                                  1. Developed countries must keep developing world in state of 'underdevelopment'
                                                                                                                                                    1. Based on 'failure' of Modernisation theory
                                                                                                                                                      1. AG Frank's model based on 'rich vs. poor' attitude
                                                                                                                                                  2. Capitalist core provides....
                                                                                                                                                    1. Manufactured goods
                                                                                                                                                      1. 'value added'
                                                                                                                                                      2. Aid
                                                                                                                                                        1. Political ideals
                                                                                                                                                          1. Polluting industry
                                                                                                                                                          2. Underdeveloped periphery provides...
                                                                                                                                                            1. Brain drain
                                                                                                                                                              1. Resources & raw materials
                                                                                                                                                                1. Political support
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Debt repayments
                                                                                                                                                                  2. "development of underdevelopment"
                                                                                                                                                              2. uni-polar -> multi-polar
                                                                                                                                                                1. West to East
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