History of Surgery Mind Map


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James Copley
Mind Map by James Copley, updated more than 1 year ago
James Copley
Created by James Copley almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

History of Surgery Mind Map
  1. History of Anaesthetics
    1. Humphrey Davy discovered nitrous oxide or 'laughing gas'
      1. Horace Wells performed successful operations under nitrous oxide
        1. When he tried a demonstration patient groaned and Wells' reputation was ruined
          1. Well's colleague William Morton tried with ether-removed tumour from neck-successful
            1. Irritated Lungs and also flammable-not good
              1. James Simpson discovered Chloroform at 'solvent abuse' party-unconscious-wrote up findings-chloroform general anaesthetic.
                1. Overdose of chloroform can stop heart
                  1. John Snow invented inhaler to control how much chloroform patient got
                    1. Carl Koller discovered Cocaine as anaesthetic Safer than chloroform
                      1. Highly addictive if overused
                        1. Modern anaesthetics greatly based around cocaine
            2. Beating Blood Loss
              1. First Blood Transfusion was in 1492-Pope Innocent slipped into a coma and 3 boys had tubes inserted from their arms into the pope's
                1. However, the blood clotted, the pope had an allergic reaction and the three boys and the pope died
                  1. Blood clotting and allergic reactions two main problems with blood transfusions
                    1. Karl Landsteiner was a haematologist and he organised blood into the groups A, B, O and AB
                      1. Richard Lewis discovered that a way of preserving blood was to add Sodium Citrate to blood and freeze it
                        1. NB: Albert Hustin carried out first successful blood transfusion
                          1. As a result, blood banks were set up
                  2. History of Antiseptics
                    1. Joseph Lister noticed that gangrene did not set in if wound was covered in boiling tar
                      1. Lister thought that best way to prevent infectionwas to keep microbes away from wound
                        1. Lister helped prevent blood poisoning by making sure hands, bandages and surgeons' clothes were kept very clean
                          1. Known as antiseptic surgery
                            1. Lister invented 'squirt' or 'spray' machine, which sprayed carbolic acid over operation
                      2. Greek Four Humors
                        1. Blood
                          1. Air
                            1. Hot and Wet
                              1. Spring
                          2. Yellow Bile
                            1. Fire
                              1. Hot and Dry
                                1. Summer
                            2. Black Bile
                              1. Earth
                                1. Cold and Dry
                                  1. Autumn
                              2. Phlegm
                                1. Water
                                  1. Cold and Wet
                                    1. Winter
                                2. The Ancient Greeks believed that there were four 'humours' in the body, liquids that everyone needed a healthy balance of to remain healthy. These 'humours' were also related to weather, seasons and the Greek elements Earth, Air, Fire and Water.
                                3. Anatomical Problems
                                  1. Microscope improved knowledge of anatomy
                                    1. Murder Act of 1752-only bodies of murderers can be dissected
                                      1. Medical schools got extra bodies through stealing from graves
                                        1. Mort safes-cages put up around graves
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