Family & Households

Description

Mind Map on Family & Households, created by caryscallan on 17/04/2014.
caryscallan
Mind Map by caryscallan, updated more than 1 year ago
caryscallan
Created by caryscallan almost 10 years ago
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Resource summary

Family & Households
  1. Functionalism
    1. Parsons
      1. 2 basic and irreducible functions
        1. Primary socialisation
          1. Stabilisation of adult personalities
          2. Structural differentiation
            1. Isolated nuclear family
              1. Geographical and social mobility
                1. Achieved status
            2. Murdock
              1. Sexual
                1. Economic
                  1. Educational
                    1. Reproductive
                  2. Marxism
                    1. Engels
                      1. Economic function
                        1. Inheritance of property
                      2. Zaretsky
                        1. Ideological funtion
                        2. Unit of consumption
                          1. Cultural capital
                            1. Housewife role
                            2. Feminism
                              1. Radical
                                1. Firestone
                                  1. Oppression due to biological and physical dominance
                                  2. Family & marriage are key institutions
                                    1. Benefit from sex
                                      1. Dominate through the threat and use of sexual/domestic violence
                                    2. Marxist
                                      1. Oppressed by capitalism and patriarchy
                                        1. Benston
                                          1. Socialisation of workers for profit
                                            1. Unpaid female work
                                            2. Reserve army of cheap labour
                                            3. Ansley
                                              1. Cushions workers
                                                1. Women are a safety valve
                                            4. Liberal
                                              1. Sexism is in mainstream culture
                                                1. Jenny Somerville
                                                  1. Move towards equality
                                                  2. Law
                                                    1. Sex discrimination act
                                                  3. Difference
                                                    1. Ethnicities and classes have different experiences so they can't be compared
                                                  4. Demography
                                                    1. Births
                                                      1. Reasons for decline
                                                        1. Changes in women's positions
                                                          1. Decline in infant mortality
                                                            1. Children are an economic liability
                                                              1. Child centredness
                                                              2. Effects of fertility changes
                                                                1. The family
                                                                  1. The dependency ratio
                                                                    1. Public services and policies
                                                                    2. Future trends
                                                                    3. Deaths
                                                                      1. Reasons for decline
                                                                        1. Medical improvements
                                                                          1. Public health and environmental improvements
                                                                            1. Improved nutrition
                                                                              1. Other social changes
                                                                                1. Decline of dangerous manual jobs
                                                                                  1. Greater illness knowledge
                                                                                    1. Smaller families reduce transmission rate of infection
                                                                                      1. Higher income = healthier lifestyle
                                                                                    2. The ageing population
                                                                                      1. Declining fertility
                                                                                        1. Declining infant mortality rate
                                                                                          1. Increasing life expectancy
                                                                                          2. The effects of the ageing population
                                                                                            1. The dependency ratio
                                                                                              1. One person pensioner households
                                                                                                1. Public services
                                                                                                  1. Social construct of ageing as a problem
                                                                                                    1. Policy implications
                                                                                                  2. Migration
                                                                                                    1. Immigration
                                                                                                      1. Net migration
                                                                                                        1. Emigration
                                                                                                          1. Recent and future patterns
                                                                                                        2. Childhood
                                                                                                          1. Social contruct
                                                                                                            1. Western ideas
                                                                                                              1. Jane Pilcher
                                                                                                                1. Seperateness
                                                                                                              2. Cultural differences
                                                                                                                1. Ruth Benedict
                                                                                                                  1. Differences between the West and elsewhere
                                                                                                                    1. Responsibility
                                                                                                                      1. Samantha Punch
                                                                                                                        1. Rural bolivia age 5 they work
                                                                                                                        2. Lowell Holmes
                                                                                                                          1. Samoan village, child takes on what they can handle
                                                                                                                        3. Obedience
                                                                                                                          1. Raymond Firth
                                                                                                                            1. Tikopia doing as your told by an adult is a concession
                                                                                                                          2. Sexual behaviour
                                                                                                                            1. Bronislaw Malinowski
                                                                                                                              1. Trobriand "tolerance & amused interest"
                                                                                                                      2. Historical differences
                                                                                                                        1. Philippe Ariès
                                                                                                                          1. Middle ages it didn't exist "mini adults"
                                                                                                                            1. Childhood emerged in 13th century
                                                                                                                              1. Schools
                                                                                                                                1. Clothing
                                                                                                                                  1. Childrearing books
                                                                                                                                2. Edward Shorter
                                                                                                                                  1. Parental attitudes
                                                                                                                                3. Reasons for the change
                                                                                                                                  1. Law stopping labour
                                                                                                                                    1. Compulsory school
                                                                                                                                      1. Child protection and welfare legislation
                                                                                                                                        1. Children rights
                                                                                                                                          1. Declining family size & infant mortality
                                                                                                                                            1. Better medical knowledge of health and development
                                                                                                                                              1. Laws that apply to children
                                                                                                                                            2. Has the position of childhood improved?
                                                                                                                                              1. March of progress
                                                                                                                                                1. Lloyd de Mause
                                                                                                                                                  1. History is dark
                                                                                                                                                  2. Laws protect them
                                                                                                                                                    1. Better healthcare
                                                                                                                                                      1. Smaller families
                                                                                                                                                        1. Higher living standards
                                                                                                                                                          1. Child centredness
                                                                                                                                                        2. Conflict
                                                                                                                                                          1. Inequalities among children
                                                                                                                                                            1. Mayer Hillman
                                                                                                                                                              1. Boys go out more after hours
                                                                                                                                                              2. Jens Bonke
                                                                                                                                                                1. Girls do more domestic labour
                                                                                                                                                                2. Julia Brannen
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Asians are stricter with 15-16 year old daughters
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Ghazala Bhatti
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Izzat restricts girl behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Caroline Woodroffe
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Unskilled manual workers children
                                                                                                                                                                        1. 3x likely to suffer from hyperactivity
                                                                                                                                                                          1. 4x more likely to have conduct disorders
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Marilyn Howard
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Children in poor families are more likely to
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Die in infancy
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Suffer chronic illness
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Be short
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Fall behind in school
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Be on child protection register
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Inequalities between adults and children
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Neglect and abuse
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 2006 - 31,400 on child protection register
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. ChildLine 20,000 annual calls
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Control over space
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Hugh Cunningham
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Travel alone distance for 8 year olds is 1/9 of what it was 25 years ago
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Shop signs "no schoolchildren"
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Close surveillance
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cindi Katz
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Rural Sudanese children roam freely
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Control over time
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Routines
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Too old or too young for certain things
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Control over their bodies
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. What they can and can't do with their appearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. How they touch themselves
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Control over resource access
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Limited money earning opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Age patriarchy
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Diana Gittins
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Cathy Humphreys & Ravi Thiara
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. 1/4 of 200 women left abuse for fear of their children
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Jennifer Hockey & Allison James
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Acting up or acting down
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. The future of childhood
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. The disappearance of childhood
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Neil Postman
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Fall of print culture and the rise of the television culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Separate childhood culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Iona Opie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Children create independent culture away from adults
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Globalization of western childhood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Sue Palmer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Toxic childhood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Rapid cultural & technological changes damage all development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Julia Margo & Mike Dixon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Near/top of international league tables
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Obesity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Self harm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Drug/alcohol abuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Violence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Early sex experiences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Teenage pregnancies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Historically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Soviet union (1920s) made divorce and abortion easier. Gender equality. Communal nurseries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Reversed it during industrialisation and war
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. China's 1 child policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Nazi family policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Functionalist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ronald Fletcher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Health,education, housing since the industrial revolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Welfare state to supports family functions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. The new right
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Welfare benefits offer perverse incentives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Dependency culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Married to the state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Advocate policies that support traditional family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Taxes favouring married couples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Child support agency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Supporting families 1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. New deal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Off benefits into work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Working family tax credit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. More wages for the move from benefits to low paid job
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Sure start
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Take all children out of poverty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Every child matters 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Feminism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Hilary Land
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Assumes the ideal family is the cereal packet norm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Tax & benefits assume men are breadwinners so hard for women to claim social security benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Courts normally give women custody "natural carers"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Diana Leonard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Maternity leave enforces patriarchy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Eileen Drew
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Gender regimes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Familstic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Assumption husband is breadwinner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Women in Greece are heavily dependent on extended kin as there is little welfare or publicly funded childcare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Individualistic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Husband and wife treated equally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. In Sweden, both are responsible for breadwinning and domestic tasks, equal opportunities, state provision of childcare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Marxism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. State and policies serve capitalism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Low state pensions show old workers are maintained at the minimum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Conscription in WW2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. 1450 nurseries for working Mums shut down after war
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Working class improvements won through class struggle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Pensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Free healthcare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Conservative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Thatcher in 1988 stopped cohabiting couples claiming more tax allowance than married couples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Back to basics campaign 1993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Child support agency 1993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Family law act 1996
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1 year before divorce ( never implemented )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Coalition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Promote couples by creating tax benefits for marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Increase health visitors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sure start intervene earlier for needy families
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Jacques Donzelot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. The policing of families
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Social workers, health visitors and doctors use their knowledge to control and change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Poor families more likely to be watched
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. "Problem familes" need "improvement"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Rachel Condry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Imposing compulsory parenting classes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Young offenders, truants etc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. The "correct" way to bring children up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Used Michel Foucault's idea of surveillence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Changing marriage patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Low marriage rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. More remarriages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. People are marrying later
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Couples are less likely to marry in church
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Reasons for changing marriage patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Changing attitudes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Secularisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Declining stigma of alternatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Changes in women's positions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Fear of divorce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Reasons for the increase in cohabitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Sex outside marriage is socially acceptable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Acceptance from the young
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Women need less security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Secularisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. The relationship between cohabitation and marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Trial marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Permenent alterantive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Same sex relationships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Social acceptance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Social policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. One person households
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. In a divorce men are more likely to leave without children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. More are single
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Deliberate choice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Living apart together
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Divorce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Reasons for the increase in divorce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Changes in the law
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Legal aid 1949 for those who couldn't afford it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Divorce reform act 1969 (effect 1971) "irretrievable breakdown of marriage"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Waiting a year for divorce 1984
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Declining stigma and changing attitudes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Secularisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Rising expectations of marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Changes in women's positions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. The meaning of high divorce rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Feminism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Postmodernists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Functionalists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Interactionists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Conjugal Roles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Domestic division of labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Parsons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Instrumental and expressive roles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Elizabeth Bott
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Joint and segregated roles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Young & Wilmott
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Symmetrical nuclear family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Changes in women's positions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Geographical mobility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. New technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Higher living standards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Ann Oakley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Housewife role is dominant for married women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Mary Boulton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Less than 20% of men have a major childcare role
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Alan Warde & Kevin Hetherington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Sex typing of domestics is strong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. The impact of paid work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Jonathan Gershuny
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Wives who work do less domestic work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Hilary Silver & Juliet Schor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Housework is commercialised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Women working
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Dual burden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Elsa Ferri & Kate Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Women still do as much work in and out of the house
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. 4% of men are main carers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Triple shift
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Jean Duncombe & Dennis Marsden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Gender scripts with lesbian couples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Gillian Dunne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Equality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Oriel Sullivan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Men do more domestic labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Resources/decision making
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Jan Pahl& Carolyn Vogler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Pooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Allowance system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Stephen Edgell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Very important decisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Husbands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Important decisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Jointly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Less important decisions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Wives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. Domestic violence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Richard Wilkinson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Due to stress on family members caused by social inequality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Inequality = less resources than others
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Radical feminism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Preserves the power of men over women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Diversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. The new right
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Conservative and anti-feminist view
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Lone parent families
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Delinquency = threat to social stability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Benefits offer perverse incentives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Stay at home Mums
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Patrick Jenkins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Inequality due to biology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Marriage is necessary for children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Harry Benson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Family breakdown is lower in marriage (6%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. The neo-conventional family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Robert Chester
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Dual earner family where both spouses work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Nuclear family is an aspiration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Alternatives due to life cycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Statistics are misleading
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Most households have married couples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Most marriages continue until death
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Cohabitation is normally temporary before marriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. The Rapoports
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Organisational
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Social class
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Life stage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Generational
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Postmodernism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Life course analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Anthony Giddens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Equal relationships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Greater choice *contraception*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Ulrich Beck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Risk society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Negotiated family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Judith Stacey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Divorce extended family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Jeffery Weeks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Growing acceptance of diversity
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