Hitler's Rise to Power


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Mind Map by hanalou, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by hanalou almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Hitler's Rise to Power
  1. Long-term
    1. Political problems of the Weimar Republic
      1. Article 48= president of the Weimar republic had the right to suspend the parliament in times of emergency
        1. Proportional representation system = weak coaltion government
          1. hard time agreeing on anything
            1. undermined credibilty of Weimar republic
            2. Legacy of the ToV and defeat in WW1
              1. new Weimar republic had to take on the blame of the defeat in WW1
                1. Right-wing + nationalistic
                  1. resented fact that Weimar republic accepted TOV + forced German forces to quit the war in 1918
                    1. "stabbed in the back"
                2. Economic weakness of the Weimar Republic
                  1. 1st eco. crisis in start of 1920's
                    1. G. exhuasted by WW1 and ToV deprived G. of many of their vital natural resources
                      1. lost 75% of iron ore resoucres when Belgian and France troops occupied Rhineland
                    2. War reparations
                      1. eco pressure = weimar gov.t start printing more money = hyperinflation
                        1. loans from US 1924 (Dawes Plan)
                        2. weak eco = votes support more radical political parties
                      2. Impact of the Great Depression (1929)
                        1. G. banks forced to close
                          1. 1932 - 6 mil. people unemployed
                            1. Coalition gov.t deeply divided and failed to agree on measures to aid G
                              1. HOWEVER - agreed to cut gov.t expenditure on welfare to cope with the falling tax revenue
                                1. actions too late
                                  1. Bruning (President) - set up public workschemes to counter high unemployment
                                2. handling of eco. depression = public look to radical parties
                                3. Hitler's use of Propaganda
                                  1. used to increase support
                                    1. success
                                      1. 1932 = 37% of all votes
                                    2. used the radio and cinema to attract support
                                      1. Nazi Party put a lot of effort into educating key members
                                        1. ensure quality of party campiagns = more support
                                      2. Immediate
                                        1. 'backstairs' - political intrigue
                                          1. 1932 - General von Schleicher replaced von Papen as Chancellor
                                            1. von Papen fallen out of favour with people and Weimar Republic
                                              1. land reform policy worried President Hindenburg = rid of von Schleicher in Jan
                                                1. try and bring in Nazi gov.t to try and stabilise G. politics
                                              2. 1933 - Hitler appointed Chancellor by Hindenburg
                                                1. thought could control Hitler
                                                  1. WRONG!
                                                  2. once appointed called for fresh elections for March
                                                    1. SA began to attack political enemies- especially communists and social dem.
                                                      1. papers closed
                                                        1. offices raided
                                                          1. members beaten up
                                                            1. meetings attacked
                                                            2. ensuring military support and non-intervention
                                                              1. promised to tear up miliatry clause in ToV
                                                          2. Reichstag Fire (1933)
                                                            1. Feb 1933 - young Dutch Communist set fire to Reichstag building
                                                              1. H. took advantage
                                                                1. announced it signal of communist revolt
                                                                  1. emergency law passed
                                                                    1. chancellor could suspend parliament
                                                                      1. law formed basis of police power in G
                                                                        1. helped to create totaltarian state
                                                                        2. now had control over weimar rep.
                                                                      2. The Enabling Act (emergency law passed by H.)
                                                                        1. March elections
                                                                          1. Nazis & allies = 52% of vote and majoprity in Reichstag
                                                                          2. to gain support for law SA mobs surrounded parliament and threatened any politicians that voted against law
                                                                            1. succeeded to pass law
                                                                              1. meant could pass laws without approval of President or parliament
                                                                                1. formed legal basis of Nazi dictatorship
                                                                                  1. =Nazis could close down on other opposing political parties etc
                                                                              2. 1934 - H. sole leader of Nazis
                                                                                1. could start Nazi dictatorship
                                                                            2. Nazi Ideology
                                                                              1. Lebensraum
                                                                                1. living space for G. in east
                                                                                  1. fight Russian communism
                                                                                    1. political ideology he resented
                                                                                  2. Volksgemeinschaft
                                                                                    1. belief in loyalty to state more important
                                                                                      1. socailly reconstruct G. into folk community based on traditional G. beliefs
                                                                                      2. Anti-Seminitism
                                                                                        1. belief Jews are the lowest race in social hierarchy and should be prosecuted
                                                                                          1. aim to create pure Aryan race
                                                                                          2. Social Darwinism
                                                                                            1. indirectly derived from Darwin's theory on survival of the fittest
                                                                                          3. H. main aims
                                                                                            1. Revise ToV
                                                                                              1. Unify all G. speakers in Europe into 'Greater G. Reich'
                                                                                                1. Lebensraum
                                                                                                  1. Volksgemeinschaft
                                                                                                    1. Anti-Semitism
                                                                                                      1. Socail Darwinism
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