Biology - B1 - AQA - GCSE - Keeping Healthy and Defending Against Infection


Revision mindmap for Biology . Includes pathogen info and diet and exercise info.
Josh Anderson
Mind Map by Josh Anderson, updated more than 1 year ago
Josh Anderson
Created by Josh Anderson about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Biology - B1 - AQA - GCSE - Keeping Healthy and Defending Against Infection
  1. Diet and Exercise
    1. Food Groups
      1. Proteins
        1. Meat, fish, eggs and cheese.
          1. Growth and Repair - Building cells.
          2. Fats
            1. Cheese, butter, margarine and oils.
              1. A source of energy. Cell membranes and insulating the body.
              2. Carbohydrates
                1. Potatoes, pasta, bread, bananas, sugar and rice.
                  1. A source of energy.
                  2. Mineral Ions
                    1. Vitamins
                    2. Poor diets can lead to deficiency diseases.
                      1. Too little vitamin D ---> Rickets (Affects growth of skeleton)
                      2. Metabolic rate
                        1. The speed at which chemical reactions take place in the body.
                          1. Affected by:
                            1. Age
                              1. Sex
                                1. Inherited factors
                                  1. Muscle:Fat proportion
                                    1. Amount of physical activity
                                2. Defending Against Infection
                                  1. Pathogens
                                    1. Bacteria
                                      1. Multiply rapidly in warm and moist conditions.
                                        1. Microscopic.
                                          1. Living cells.
                                            1. When they enter the body, they release toxins that make humans feel ill.
                                            2. Fungi
                                              1. Larger fungi include moulds and mushrooms
                                              2. Viruses
                                                1. Reproduce inside host cells.
                                                  1. Damage cells whilst doing so.
                                                    1. Eventually, burst open host cell.
                                                  2. Genetic material inside a coat of protein.
                                                    1. Passed through bloodstream.
                                                    2. Disease-Causing Microbe
                                                    3. White Blood Cells
                                                      1. Ingest pathogens
                                                        1. DO NOT SAY "EATS PATHOGENS"
                                                        2. Produce antibodies to destroy pathogens
                                                          1. Bind to pathogens and damage/destroy.
                                                            1. Coat pathogens to make them easier to ingest.
                                                              1. Specific antibodies fit specific antigens.
                                                              2. Produce antitoxins to counter the toxin produced by pathogens
                                                              3. NOTE
                                                                1. Pathogens are not the disease, they CAUSE the disease.
                                                                  1. White blood cells do not eat pathogens, they INGEST pathogens.
                                                                    1. Antibodies and antitoxins are not living, they are SPECIALISED PROTEINS.
                                                                    2. Vaccination
                                                                      1. Works against bacteria - NOT VIRUSES
                                                                        1. Bacteria can be resistant to vaccination.
                                                                        2. Contains weak/dead pathogens to make it easy for the white blood cells to deal with them.
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