|What provides movement at joints and helps to maintain posture?
|What five vital jobs does the skeleton do?
|Red blood cells, some white blood cells, platelets in bone marrow. System of levers with muscle. Protects internal organs.
|Name two tissues the skeleton has.
|Bone and cartilage.
|What kind of activities improve the health of bones and what happens?
|Weight bearing exercises such as jogging increase bone density.
|Name the two main kinds of joint, with two examples of each.
|Ball-and-socket joints such as the hip and shoulder, and hinge joints such as the elbow and knee.
|There are 7 parts to a diagram of a knee capsule. Name all of them.
|Muscle, tendon, ligaments, cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, bone/femur.
|Describe the tendon.
|A tough band of inelastic tissue attaching muscle to bone.
|Describe the ligaments.
|Bands of tough but elastic tissue holding bones to each other.
|Describe the cartilage.
|A smooth protective surface covering the bone ends, providing easy movement.
|Describe synovial fluid.
|A fluid that lubricates and nourishes the tissues in a joint capsule.
|Describe the synovial membrane.
|Tissues that line the joint capsule and secrete synovial fluid.
|Muscles work opposite one another at joints. What is this called and how does it work?
|An antagonistic pair. One muscle relaxes and is stretched whilst the other shortens to move the joint in that direction.
|What two things should a fitness instructor ask about when you began an exercise regime?
|Your lifestyle history and your medical history.
|What three (past and present) medical issues does an instructor need to know about?
|Circulatory and respiratory problems, joint or back pain/treatments and medication you're taking.
|What is baseline data?
|Data gathered at the start of an experiment or study so that patterns or trends can be established.
|What five forms does baseline data take in relation to health and fitness?
|Heart rate, BMI, blood pressure, recovery period, proportional of body fat.
|What is the recommended heart rate to train at?
|60% of your personal maximum.
|Why does blood pressure matter and what is the typical value for a healthy person?
|The heart beats more forcefully when you do strenuous exercise, dependent on your health. The typical value is 120/80 mmHg.
|What does your recovery period show?
|How much you're improving, as healthy people recover from exercise quicker.
|Why is a high proportion of body fat a cause for worry and how does it compare to your BMI?
|Too much fat puts a strain on your heart and narrows the arteries. A much better test than your BMI.
|How is BMI worked out and what do the letters stand for?
|body mass index = weight (kg)/height (m) squared
|What does it mean if something has been calibrated?
|The measurements it makes are compared with the measurements that are known to be true.
|What four common injuries are there to athletes?
|sprains, dislocations, torn ligaments and torn tendons
|What four symptoms are there of a sprain?
|There's redness and swelling, surface bruising, difficulty walking or pain either a throbbing ache or a cramping pain.
|What is the usual treatment for sprains?
|RICE - rest, ice, compression, elevation
|What four symptoms are there of a ligament tearing?
|There's a popping sound and the joint becomes painfully bruised and hard to bend, with a little dent where the ligament is torn.
|What three things can happen to a tendon, and in what sport do these occur the most?
|They can stretch, become inflamed or snap. This happens a lot in basketball.
|What does a physiotherapist do?
|Assess problems with joints or muscles and prescribe exercises to treat it as well as physical manipulation.
|What is double circulation?
|The two loops our blood goes on, once through the lungs and once round the body.
|Why is one side of the heart weaker than the other?
|This side pumps blood to the lungs at a lower pressure - this stops the blood being pushed into our airways.
|What four things does plasma transport and what two other 'jobs' does it do for the body?
|Plasma transports glucose, waste, hormones and antibodies around in the blood. It also gives blood it's bulk and distributes heat around the body.
|When the blood goes through the lungs, what does the oxygen bind to and what colour does it go?
|haemoglobin goes dark red in colour
|What three types of cells are there in blood plasma and what do each of these do?
|Red blood cells transport oxygen, white blood cells fight infection and platelets are needed for blood to clot at injury sites.
|In what three ways are red blood cells specially adapted to do their purpose?
|They're biconcave to squeeze through capillaries and packed with haemoglobin and they have no nucleus.
|What is engulfing and digesting microorganisms called?
|What are platelets and how do they work?
|They're fragments of cells that are made from the cytoplasm of large cells and stick to the cut edge of blood vessels, sending out chemicals that trigger the cut to clot.
|What are the two chambers of the heart called?
|The atrium and the ventricle.
|What is the main vein from the body called?
|What two areas of the heart does deoxygenated blood flow into, in order?
|First to the right atrium, then to the right ventricle.
|What carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?
|the pulmonary artery
|What carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs?
|the pulmonary veins
|What is the main artery to the body called?
|In the heart, what stops blood going in the wrong direction?
|What happens to blood plasma when it goes through the capillaries and what is formed?
|The blood plasma is forced out of the capillaries and tissue fluid is formed.
|What are large numbers of capillaries together called?
|What are your feet/hands called and what are your internal organs called in relation to heat?
|Feet/hands are extremities and organs are the core.
|What is the processing center for sleep, water balance, body temperature and appetite called?
|Name one mostly involuntary way we keep warm, and how it works.
|Shivering is when the cells contract quickly and release more energy from respiration for this movement.
|What entirely involuntary way is there of keeping cold and how does it work?
|Sweating - sweat glands are stimulated by the brain and water molecules go to the skin, gaining energy from the skin and using it to evaporate.
|What does it means that some effectors warm you up and some cool you down?
|What is it called when skin goes paler and when it becomes flushed?
|Paler is vasoconstriction whilst flushing is vasodilation.
|How does vasodilation and vasoconstriction work?
|In vasodilation the capillaries near the surface of the skin expand, and the blood flows through them and heat is lost to the environment as per the temperature gradient. In vasoconstriction the opposite occurs.
|What hormone controls blood sugar levels and what happens to it when you absorb a lot of sugar in one go?
|What five symptoms are there of type 1 diabetes and how is it treated?
|It first starts in childhood, it involves thirst and huge amounts of sugary urine, and you can be either very drowsy or go into a coma. It's treated with daily insulin shots and careful diet.
|What happens in type 2 diabetes and what causes it?
|The cells either stop responding to insulin or insulin stops being produced. It's caused by a bad diet, low exercise and being obese.
|What is 'rate of illness'?
|The amount of people in a group, for example a country, who become ill from a certain disease.