Haematopoiesis is the name given to the production of blood cells.
The skeleton is made up of bone [blank_start]tissues[blank_end] and cartilage - these consist of [blank_start]living[blank_end] cells. [blank_start]Blood[blank_end] brings nutrients and oxygen to these cells like any other. Bone is continually [blank_start]broken down[blank_end] and rebuilt. [blank_start]Weight[blank_end]-bearing exercises [blank_start]stimulate[blank_end] bone growth, whilst inactivity makes [blank_start]bone[blank_end] weak and less [blank_start]dense[blank_end].
Bone is tissue that can contract and relax to cause movement.
strong, fibrous, elastic connective tissues that connect bones to each other in a joint.
strong, fibrous, flexible connective tissue that joins muscles to bone.
When muscles contract, they get [blank_start]shorter[blank_end]. Muscles are attached to bones by [blank_start]tendons[blank_end], so when the muscle contracts, it [blank_start]pulls[blank_end] on the bone and so enabling movement [blank_start]of[blank_end] the bone is part of a joint. Muscles can only cause bones to move by [blank_start]contracting[blank_end]. This means that a muscle can only move a bone in one [blank_start]direction[blank_end] so muscles work in [blank_start]antagonistic[blank_end] pairs - one muscle contracts while the other [blank_start]relaxes[blank_end]. To move in the [blank_start]opposite[blank_end] way, the relaxed muscle contracts while the contracted muscle relaxes.
Label the diagram of a joint, and match the part of the joint to its definition.
When cartilage wears down at the ends of bones in a joint grind together when it is moved.
A separation of two bones where they meet at a joint.
Which joints only allow backwards and forwards movement?
Ball and socket joints
What type of joint allows bones to rotate around each other by 360 degrees?
Ball and socket joint
A fixed joint is held together by rough fibres, and they are several bones fused together to form a rigid structure.
Before starting a new exercise programme, it is important to find out the following things:
Current symptoms - eg pain in left knee may indicate an existing [blank_start]injury[blank_end].
Current medication - eg using an inhaler for asthma may suggest that gentle [blank_start]exercise[blank_end] will be better than strenuous exercise.
Alcohol and tobacco consumption - which may affect the cardiovascular and respiratory [blank_start]systems[blank_end].
Level of current physical [blank_start]activity[blank_end] - to prevent over-exertion which may cause injury.
Family [blank_start]medical[blank_end] history - eg if a close family member died of a heart attack then care should be taken before strenuous exercise is recommended.
Previous treatments - eg surgery after a dislocated shoulder may [blank_start]limit[blank_end] the range of movement.
All treatments and exercise programmes carry some [blank_start]risk[blank_end]. For example, lifting weights in the gym can damage your back and doing a lot of running can damage your knees and other [blank_start]joints[blank_end].
It is up to the individual and the healthcare professional to [blank_start]balance[blank_end] these risks against the benefits of the treatment or exercise programme and decide what to do.
BMI = weight (kg) / [height (m)]^2
BMI can be use to tell you the proportion of your weight and height, and to categorise people.
In order to know whether a new [blank_start]training[blank_end] programme has made a positive impact on fitness, it is important to [blank_start]record[blank_end] measurements regularly. These measurements could include:
the type and duration of exercise done on different days over a [blank_start]period[blank_end] of time
a food [blank_start]diary[blank_end] so that nutrition can also be evaluated
[blank_start]resting[blank_end] heart rate
duration of [blank_start]recovery[blank_end] period after completing a particular exercise or workout
[blank_start]percentage[blank_end] body fat
weight [blank_start]lost[blank_end] or gained
Recording more than one type of measurement is important because some measurements of fitness may show an [blank_start]improvement[blank_end], but others may not.
It is important to consider the [blank_start]accuracy[blank_end] of each type of measurement of fitness, and whether it can be repeated under the same [blank_start]conditions[blank_end], in order to evaluate its reliability.
For example, if blood pressure was being monitored a [blank_start]misleading[blank_end] figure could be attained. Values should be obtained using a [blank_start]specific[blank_end] method - such as sitting down with the arm at chest height - to ensure repeatability was accurate. If this method was not followed then the result would not be [blank_start]reliable[blank_end]. Values could also be altered if the person was stressed.
Another example would be monitoring your BMI. This value could vary on an [blank_start]hourly[blank_end] basis depending on your food and fluid intake. To ensure accuracy, the reading should be taken at the same [blank_start]time[blank_end] of day to make results usefully comparable.
Which of the following are common sporting injuries?
Damage to ligaments inc. torn ligaments
The acronym for treatments for minor sporting injuries is RIDE.
A physiotherapist is a [blank_start]healthcare[blank_end] professional who [blank_start]specialises[blank_end] in treating people who have skeletal-[blank_start]muscular[blank_end] injuries.
Physiotherapists work out programmes of movements and [blank_start]exercises[blank_end] for patients to follow in order to increase their [blank_start]range[blank_end] of movement, [blank_start]flexibility[blank_end] and strength after an injury.
Heart rate is measured in beats per [blank_start]minute[blank_end]. Generally speaking, the lower someone’s resting [blank_start]heart[blank_end] rate, the fitter they are. A teenager or adult has a [blank_start]typical[blank_end] resting heart rate of 60-80 beats per minute.
Heart rate [blank_start]increases[blank_end] during exercise to transport oxygen and glucose to the muscles and to remove [blank_start]waste[blank_end] products. After exercise, the heart rate begins to return to [blank_start]normal[blank_end] and this is called the recovery period. The [blank_start]shorter[blank_end] the recovery period, the fitter the individual.
The heart does not return to its normal rate immediately to ensure that all the carbon dioxide that has built up around the muscle cells is removed.