Input and Output Devices


GCSE ICT Mind Map on Input and Output Devices, created by Jess Peason on 30/01/2015.
Jess Peason
Mind Map by Jess Peason, updated more than 1 year ago
Jess Peason
Created by Jess Peason about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Input and Output Devices
  1. Input Devices
    1. Keyboards
      1. Used to enter user created text in applications. For example creation of a letter using a word processor. Often called a QWERTY keyboard if the letters are arranged so that the first 6 letters from the top left are QWERTY. The arrangement of the rest of the keyboard depends upon the part of the world it is sold. Advantages and disadvantages • Most people know how to use it so specialist training not required • Cheap • Easily collects dust and dirt so not suitable for dirty environments • Requires significant desktop space
      2. Numeric Keypad
        1. Either found as a separate section of a standard desktop PC keyboard or as a completely separate input device in applications only requiring numeric data to be entered. Examples of numeric keypads are found on • Bank ATM machines • PIN PADS for entering a Personal Identification Number when using a bank card to pay in a shop Advantages and disadvantages • Rapid operation for experienced users • Smaller footprint so good in working environments with reduced space such as an EFTPOS terminal • Only allows numeric data to be entered
        2. Mouse
          1. A pointing device used to control a pointer or curser. Used to select items on a GUI (Graphical User Interface) e.g. clicking on an icon to run a program. Advantages and disadvantages • May de difficult to use by people with physical disabilities • Requires desktop space to use • Picks up dust and dirt easily - ball may become stuck • Most people know how to use it
          2. Touch Pad
            1. Commonly found on laptop computers. It has the same functionality as a mouse. Cursor is controlled by the movement of a finger over a sensitive pad. Advantages and disadvantages • Does not require desktop space to useful in reduced space applications • A sealed unit so less problems with malfunction due to dust and dirt • Can take time to become familiar with its operation
            2. Tracker ball
              1. Same functionality as a mouse. Cursor controlled my moving a ball with fingers or palm. The ball protrudes from the top of the device. Advantages and disadvantages • Not common and needs time to become aquainted with its operation • Easier to use by people with physical disabilities
              2. Remote Control
                1. Device used to control the operation of devices such as • T.V's • Video Recorders and players • DVD Recorders and players • Satellite decoders/ receivers • Music Systems • Multimedia Projectors Advantages and disadvantages • Makes it easier to control device without having to be right next to it • Often small and portable so easily lost
                2. Joystick
                  1. Device used to control movement on a screen in applications such as flight simulators, driving simulators and computer games. Advantages and disadvantages • Allows simulators to be more realistic e.g. flight simulators
                  2. Touch Screen
                    1. Touch sensitive screen that enables a user to select from a limited list of items. Used in applications such as Point-Of-Sale terminals, tourist information kiosks and systems to find out about public transport. Advantages and disadvantages • Combines output device (screen) with input device so reduced space requirements • Operators will require training to use it effectively • Less prone to malfunction due to dust and dirt.
                    2. Magnetic Stripe Reader
                      1. Device to read the magnetic stripe on the back of bank cards and some types of identification cards for security systems. Found in bank ATM machines, EFTPOS terminals in supermarkets and entry systems for secure locations. Advantages and disadvantages • Easy operation by untrained users • Can become unusable by too much dust and dirt
                      2. Chip Reader
                        1. Device used to read the chip found on bank cards. Used in shops to pay for purchases. Similar applications as magnetic stripes and magnetic stripe readers but more recent technology. Advantages and disadvantages • Secure way of storing banking and personal data • Easy operation for untrained user • Less common than magnetic strip readers so may not always be available
                        2. PIN Pad
                          1. A numeric keypad used together with magnetic stripe readers and chip readers to confirm the person is the rightful owner of the card by typing in a PIN (4 digit Personal Identification Number). Advantages and disadvantages • Easy operation for untrained user • Small footprint on shop counters • Enable PIN entry without others seeing what is typed
                          2. Scanner
                            1. Used to convert hard copy documents into digital form to allow it to be stored on a computer. Advantages and disadvantages • Allows rapid entry of images and text into a digital form for storage on a computer • Can be used with OCR to enter large amounts of text data rapidly • Expensive and may require extra software to be useable
                            2. Digital Camera
                              1. Camera which captures an image on a light sensitive digital sensor (also called a CCD or Charge Coupled Device) instead of a piece of film. The image id captured in a digital form that can be sent directly to a computer. Advantages and disadvantages • Reduced cost of processing and buying film • More expensive than comparable film camera • Easy to upload images to a computer • Often more compact than a comparable film camera • Less chance of dust and dirt entering as it does not need to be opened to change film
                              2. Microphone
                                1. Used to record audio such as voice for input into a computer
                                2. Sensors
                                  1. Devices that respond to a certain physical property and convert it into an electrical signal. Can be connected to a computer often via an analogue to digital converter. Examples of the physical properties that can be sensed and the applications in which they are found include • Temperature o Automatic washing machines o Automatic cookers o Air conditioning controllers o Central heating controllers o Computer-controlled greenhouses o Monitoring and recording scientific experiments o Environmental monitoring and recording • Pressure o Burglar alarms o Automatic washing machines o Robotics o Production-line control o Monitoring and recording scientific experiments o Environmental monitoring and recording • Light o Computer-controlled greenhouses o Burglar alarms o Robotics o Production-line control o Monitoring and recording scientific experiments o Environmental monitoring and recording
                                  2. Graphics Tablet
                                    1. Device used to convert free-hand drawings into digital form that can be sent to a computer. Consists of a flat surface that detects the movement of a pen and sends this data to the computer.
                                    2. MICR
                                      1. Stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Device used to read the special magnetic ink that banks use to print details on the bottom of a cheque. The magnetic ink is used to record the persons bank account number and branch sort code. This enables to cheque to be machine readable and speeds up the processing of cheques compared to manual input by an operator. The characters printed with magnetic ink are also human readable.
                                      2. OMR
                                        1. Stands for Optical Mark Recognition. Relies on a specifically designed paper form that has certain regions where a mark can be placed by a person using a pen or pencil. The presence of the mark on the page has a meaning based on the position of the mark which is understood by the software on the computer. The system does not recognise actual characters such as letters or numbers.
                                        2. OCR
                                          1. Stands for Optical Character Recognition. A device to enable a computer to recognise written or printed characters. Used together with a scanner it enables a page of text to be scanned and entered into a computer as editable text (for use in a word processor) instead of just an image of the text that cannot be changed.
                                          2. Barcode Reader
                                            1. A barcode is a series of black lines on a white background used to identify products. Each number is represented by a line with a different thickness. The barcode reader passes a beam of light over the barcode to detect the lines and their thickness and converts this into a number. Used in supermarkets at EPOS terminals to connect a product being purchased with the correct price stored in the supermarkets database.
                                            2. Video Cameras
                                              1. A digital video camera works in a similar way to a digital still camera but enables moving images to be captured as a series of still digital images.
                                              2. Web Cams
                                                1. Often mounted on a computer or built into the screen of laptop computers. It enable to capture of moving images in the same way as a video camera.
                                                2. Light Pen
                                                  1. Used to control the movement of a cursor or to select items from a screen in situations where space is limited so the use of a mouse or graphics tablet would be difficult
                                                3. Output Devices
                                                  1. CRT Monitor
                                                    1. These monitors are easy to identify as they have large bulky backs behind a glass screen. They used to be the most common monitors for use with desktop computers. These days other Monitor types have become cheaper and so CRT monitors are not commonly seen except in old equipment. Advantages and disadvantages • Cheap to buy • Produces good colours • Large footprint so takes up lots of desktop space. • Very heavy compared to other monitor types • Screen is generally convex and this makes output at the edges slightly distorted.
                                                    2. TFT Monitor
                                                      1. These are the most common type of computer monitor at present. They use LCD technology which requires backlighting to enable the image to be seen. Advantages and disadvantages • Thinner and lighter then CRT monitors making them suitable for portable products • The back lighting does not evenly light the screen causing dark and light patches • Narrow viewing angle - Picture quality changes as the viewer moves around.
                                                      2. Projector
                                                        1. Computer screens are too small to show something to an audience. Multimedia projectors plug into computers and the normal image on the display is projected onto a large screen. Advantages and disadvantages • Allows larger numbers of people to see what is on the computer display • Bulb lifetime is limited and bulbs are expensive to replace • Often require significant distance between screen and projector so require large rooms to work
                                                        2. Laser Printers
                                                          1. Laser printers are the main types of printers found in offices and businesses. They produce high quality printouts of both text and graphics and can produce both colour and grey scale output. Advantages and disadvantages • More expensive to buy a laser printer than an inkjet printer • Less expensive to print per page than an inkjet printer. • Produce very high quality output
                                                          2. Plotters
                                                            1. Also called a 'plotter' these are used to printout line drawings in situations like architects or engineering diagrams. There are two types • Flat-bed plotters - The paper lies on flat surface and pens are moved across the surface to draw diagrams • Drum-plotters - The paper is on a roll and as it unrolls pens draw on it. Advantages and disadvantages • Can work on very large paper sizes • Produce very high quality line drawings • Very large and so take up lots of office space • Very expensive top buy the plotter • Pen plotters have mostly been replaced by very large inkjet printers in most situations
                                                            2. Speakers
                                                              1. Enable a computer to output sounds as long as there is a sound card fitted into the computer. Advantages and disadvantages • Enable to users to hear sounds - useful for feedback for visually impaired people • Enables computers to be used a multimedia devices such as in video playback with sound • Require desktop space
                                                              2. Motors
                                                                1. Allows a computer to make other equipment move such as microwaves, washing machines and robots. Advantages and disadvantages • Enables computers to control automated equipment. • Requires additional equipment like D2A converters to enable computers to control motors
                                                                2. Buzzers
                                                                  1. Buzzers enable feedback to users such as alarms for microwaves once they have finished. Advantages and disadvantages • Enables computers to give audible feedback if the user is not able to see the device. • Noise can be intrusive in situations where low noise levels are important
                                                                  2. Lights
                                                                    1. Found in computer controlled greenhouses, street lighting and traffic lights. Advantages and disadvantages • Improve the productivity of the greenhouse by maximising the amount of light for the plants. • Makes driving safer by automatically turning on when it is dark
                                                                    2. Heaters
                                                                      1. Used in computer controlled greenhouses. In colder climates and at night the computer can turn the heater on to maintain the optimum temperature for the plants growth. Advantages and disadvantages • Improve the productivity of the greenhouse by maximising the temperature for the plants. • Enables the growth of plants which would not grow in colder climates • Excessive use of heaters and lights to grow non-native plants contributes to atmospheric warming
                                                                      2. Inkjet Printer
                                                                        1. Inkjet printers produce a printout by emitting small drops of ink onto paper. They are not impact printers. Inkjet printers are very common for home printing requirements. Advantages and disadvantages • Produce high quality printouts in colour • Cheap to purchase the printer initially • Quieter than impact printers such as dot-matrix • High ink costs per page • Printouts may not be touch-dry when first produced so will smudge if not handled carefully
                                                                        2. Dot Matrix Printer
                                                                          1. Dot-matrix printers are impact printers. They work by striking the page with small pins coated in ink at the tip. They used to popular in home printing applications but have now been mostly replaced by inkjet printers. Their main use is in printing multi-part forms which require the impact to imprint the character through to the last page. Advantages and disadvantages • Very fast for printing text • Can print onto multi-part forms because they use impact to work (the other types of printer mentioned are non-impact). • Very noisy so not suitable for offices due to noise pollution. • Still popular in warehouses, or similar, where noise is less of an issue and multi-part form use is still common. • Produce very poor image quality only really suitable for text
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