Geology- Structural


Flashcards on Geology- Structural , created by holliebishop1996 on 05/03/2014.
Flashcards by holliebishop1996, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by holliebishop1996 about 10 years ago

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Question Answer
Stress and Strain Tensional Stress- Causes the rock to stretch. (Force from opposite sides) Compressional Stress- squeezes and compresses the rock. Confining stress- Stress that is equal from all directions. Shear Stress- result in slippage.
Stress definition Stress is the motive force and is caused by tectonic activity, the response of rocks is called strain.
Elastic deformation Temporary change to rocks position and shape, Elastic deformation allows the rock to return to its original shape and position.
Elastic Limit/ yield point beyond this point the deformation that takes place is permanent, in either a ductile or plastic deformation.
Ductile flow/plastic deformation Rock deforms permanently
Fracture point Point in which a fracture occurs
Temprature At high temperature molecules and their bonds can stretch and move, thus the material takes a more ductile state.
Confining pressure High confining pressure means that minerals are less likely to fracture, because their is equal pressure from all sides. At low confining pressure the material will be brittle thus more likely to fracture.
Strain Rate At high strain levels materials tend to fracture. At low stain levels atoms move more freely therefore are less likely to fracture
Brittle rocks (competent rocks) Tend to be old or crystalline igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. They tend to fracture rather than flow.
Ductile Rocks (Incompetent rocks) mainly argillaceous sedimentary rocks such as clays, shales ect. These tend to deform rather than fracture.
Normal fault Also called dip slip faults/ extensional- tensional fault.
Reverse Fault Also called Compressional faults
Thrust fault A low angled reverse fault- less than 45%
Strike Slip Fault No downthrow side, only latral movement, produces a TARE/WRECH fault. Caused by shear force. Sinistral- Left Dextral- Right Makes one half of a shear set
Anticline and Syncline
Slickensides Scraping on the downthow side of normal faults.
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