Applied Marine Biology Flashcards


Applied Marine Biology, University of Portsmouth, 2015-2016
Hayley Harrison
Flashcards by Hayley Harrison, updated more than 1 year ago
Hayley Harrison
Created by Hayley Harrison about 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Marine Fouling -an unwanted growth of organisms on a surface -cost of $1 billion due to drag friction
Fouling Succession -primary (molecular fouling): seconds to hours -secondary (microfouling): hours to days -tertiary (macrofouling): up to 1 year
Anti-fouling Coatings -leaching (biocides) -non-leaching (release)
Non-coating -water treatment -surface treatment cleaning
Invasive Species -seaweed uses: food staple, food gum, maerl, cosmetics, medicine -changes to industry: increased mechanization, inclusion of fast-growing species/varieties
Cultivation Methods -regeneration and self-seeding -fragmentation and fertile adults -requires knowledge of the species
Mariculture -improving sea conditions -improving plant material -creates artificial environments -depends on algae
Cultivation of Laminaria -natural life-history and forced cultivation -spore seeding: zoospore seeding, gametophyte seeding, out-growing -Gracilaria: bottom stacking, rope farming, pond farming, tank production
Laminaria Life Cycle
Cultivation Contamination -prevention: pre-treatment, site cleaning, filtration, maintenance, conditions controlled -control methods: replacement, grazers, chemicals, removal, drying
Fishery Patterns -stocks: basic management unit (varied in response) -depensation: loss of reproductive capacity with decreasing stock size
Stock Monitoring -stock monitoring: natural and artificial markers, phenotypic characteristics,. genetic data
Fishery Stock Variation
Stock Recruitment R= (a x s) / L + (b x s)
Fish Stock Growth -estimating expected yield: surplus production, yield per recruit -trophic models: account for biological interactions, models based on energy flow, implications of change in one component
Estimating Fishing Mortality
Fishing and Climate -under intensive exploitation, populations undergo critical changes: mature early, smaller adult, short life-span, shift in maturation reaction -in heavily exploited populations: more adults killed by humans than natural causes
Large Scale Climate Variation -Large scale variation: El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO)
Environmental Change On Target Species
Stable Isotopes
Marine Biological Invasions -induction vectors: aquaculture, ballast water, fouling, artificial canals, aquariums -natural dispersal pathways: leading-edge dispersal corridors, long-distance dispersal -artificial pathways: mass dispersal, cultivation
Biological Invasion Sequence -transport -colonization -dispersal -impacts
Introduced Species
Deepwater Fishes, Carbon and Ecosystem Services -mesopelagic food web is very efficient so it prevents long term storage of carbon (can be overwhelmed or bypassed) -difficult to assess the abundance of mesopelagic fish -1,000,000-2,500,000 tonnes of C stored per year
Carbon Storage
Marine Wood Borers -significance of biodegraders: biodeterioration, biotech potential, ecosystem services -As a food source: non-ingesters, microorganism users, particulate feeders, independent digesters, kleptoenzymes
Lignocellulose, hemicellulose and lignin -lignocellulose: long chain polymer -hemicellulose: branching polymers -lignin: hydrophobic
Particulate Feeders -the gland of deshayes: mass of brown tissue lining the brachial vein that fixes inorganic nitrogen -nitrogen conservation: grooming, species excretion
Aquaculture -use of ~300 species -no species is ideal and must be manipulated (direct or genetic)
Induced Triploidy in Aqauculture -change in chromosome number (2n to 3n) to give infertile males -pressure shock, heat shock -problems: competition, escape, sexually maturing males
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