|What are testing objectives?
|Classed into 2 types, direct and indirect
|What are the 2 types of testing strategies?
|Big bang testing and incremental testing
|What is the direct testing objective?
|Identify/reveal as many errors as possible Bring to acceptable quality level Perform required testing in an efficient and effective way, within budget and scheduling limitations
|What is the indirect testing objective?
|To supply records of software errors to be used for error prevention.
|What is Big bang testing?
|Tests the software as a whole, once the completed package is available.
|What is incremental testing?
|tests the modules one by one
|What are the 3 things incremental testing do?
|Unit, Integration and system testing
|What are Unit tests? (incremental testing flow)
|software modules are tested as they are completed
|What are Integration tests? (incremental testing flow)
|Followed by groups of modules composed of tested modules integrated with newly completed modules
|What is a System test? (incremental testing flow)
|Once the entire package is completed, it is tested as a whole
|Big bang testing strategy cons?
|Bad for programs that aren't small and simple. Identification of errors in entire software package when perceived as one 'unit' is difficult and not effective. Perfect error correction takes time. Resources/schedule testing estimates are fuzzy.
|Incremental testing pros?
|Performed on relatively small software units, so yields higher percentages of identified errors and facilitates their correction.
|Big Bang or incremental?
|Incremental is preferred
|What is top-down testing strat?
|- First module tested is the main module, the highest level module in the software structure; - Last modules to be tested are the lowest level modules.
|What is bottom-up testing strat?
|Bottom up is reversed top-down - Lowest level modules are tested first - Main module tested last
|Bottom-up pro + con?
|pro: Relative ease of performance con: Lateness of stage at which its possible to observe the program as a whole.
|Top-down pro + con?
|pro: Early stage to demonstrate the program as whole, a condition that supports early identification of analysis/design errors. con: The comparative difficulty of its performance.
|What is black-box testing?
|Identifies bugs only according to malfunctioning of the software as revealed from its outputs, while disregarding the internal paths of calculations performed by the software.
|What is white box testing?
|Examines the internal paths of calculations in order to identify bugs.
|Advantages of black box?
|Allows tester to carry out almost all test classes. For test classes that can be carried out by both white and black box testing black box testing requires considerably fewer resources.
|Disadvantages of black box?
|Allows for identification of coincidental errors as correct. Lacks control of line coverage. Lacks possibilities to test the quality of coding work.
|Advantages of whitebox?
|Direct statement-by-statement code checking = better checking, e.g. if algos were correctly coded Performance of line coverage follow-up with non-executed LOC. Test cases then can cover these. Ascertains coding work quality+coding standards.
|Disadvantages of white box?
|Vast resources utilised, more than black box testing of same software. Inability to test software performance in terms of availability (response time), reliability, load durability, and other testing classes related to operation, revision and transition factors.
|What is path coverage?
|Percentage of possible paths of software processing activated by the test cases. Applicable for estimating white box testing coverage only
|What is line coverage?
|Percentage of executed lines of code examined during the tests. Applicable for estimating white box testing coverage only
|How can we achieve full path coverage?
|Use path and line coverage with white-box testing, to try. But achievement of full path coverage is impractical because the scope of resources required for its implementation.
|What are the 3 types of black box tests?
|There are 3 factor testing classes: - Revision - Operation - Transition
|What are the 3 Revision factor testing classes for black box testing?
|(1) Maintainability [tests] (2) Flexibility (3) Testability
|What are the 8 operation factor testing classes for black box testing? DA-Roosts
|(1) Documentation [tests] (2) Availability (3) Reliability (4) Output correctness (5) Operational usability (6) Stress tests (7) Training usability (8) Software system security
|What are the 4 Transition factor testing classes for black box testing? REPS
|(1) Re-usability [tests] (2) Equipment interfacing (3) Portability (4) Software interfacing