|General statement of why the study is being carried out.
|An assumption that there is no relationship between the variables eg. no relationship between age and intelligence
|Directional hypothesis (One-Tailed)
|States the kind of relationship between two conditions. E.g. People who do homework without the TV on produce better results than those who do homework with the TV on.
|Non-Directional hypothesis (Two-Tailed)
|Simply predicts that there will be a difference or relationship between two conditions. E.g. There is a difference between work produced in noisy or silent conditions.
|Independent Groups Design
|Participants are allocated to two or more groups representing different experimental conditions.
|Matched Pairs Design
|Participants are matched in terms of key variables such as age and IQ.
|Repeated Measures Design
|Each participant takes part in every condition under test.
|Every member of the target population being tested has an equal chance of being selected. .
|Sample of participants produced by selecting people who are most easily available at the time of the study.
|Sample of participants produced by a sampling technique that relies solely on volunteers to make up the sample.
|Dividing a target behaviour into a subset of behaviours.
|Data that express a complete account of what people think or feel.
|Numerical data that represent how much, how long or how many.
|Questions that allow respondents to provide their own answers rather than select one of those provided; tend to produce qualitative data.
|Questions that have a range of answers from which respondents select one; tend to produce quantitative data and are easier to analyse.
|Specifying a set of variables that can be measured or manipulated.
|Variable made to change by the experimenter.
|Effects of the IV on another variable are observed or measured.
|Anything other than the IV that could have an effect on the DV and should thus be controlled.
|Variable other than the IV that affected the DV and thus confounded the findings of the study.
|Small-scale trial of a study run to test any aspects of the design, with a view to making improvements.
|Measure of consistency both within a set of scores or items and also over time such that it is possible to obtain the same results on subsequent occasions when the measure is used.
|Degree to which an observed effect is due to the experimental manipulation rather than other factors such as extraneous variables.
|Degree to which an experimental effect can be generalised to other settings (ecological validity), other people (population validity) and over time (historical validity).
|Ability to generalise a research effect in a real life setting.
|Features of an experiment that makes participants aware of what the researcher expects to find or how participants are expected to behave.
|Anything that the investigator/experimenter does which has an effect on a participant's performance in a study than what was intended.
|A relationship between two co-variables such that as the value of one co-variable increases, the value of the other co-variable increases.
|As one variable increases, the other decreases.
|A number between -1 and +1 that tells us how closely the co-variables in a correlational analysis are related.
|Study mirrors the real world.
|Extent to which participants take an experiment seriously.
|Type of research design in which the participant is not aware of the research aims.
|Research design in which neither the participant nor the experimenter is aware of the condition that an individual participant is receiving.
|Random allocating participants to different groups.
|Experiment carried out in a controlled setting and enables the experimenter to draw conclusions about causal relationship between the IV and DV.
|Controlled experiment conducted in a natural setting. IV is still manipulated and therefore causal relationships can be demonstrated.
|Research method in which the experimenter cannot manipulate the IV directly, but where it varies naturally and the effect can be observed on a DV.
|Determining the extent of a relationship between two variables.
|Research method carried out in a naturalistic setting and investigator observes the behaviours.
|Form of investigation in which behaviour is observed but under controlled conditions.
|Research method in which data is collected through the use of written questions.
|Research method that involves a face-to-face interaction with another individual.
|Type of research method that could be in the form of a questionnaire but it is not anonymous.
|Research method involving detailed study of a single individual, institution or event.