Linguistics 101 Final Review

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Flashcards on Linguistics 101 Final Review, created by smallphantom on 14/04/2015.
smallphantom
Flashcards by smallphantom, updated more than 1 year ago
smallphantom
Created by smallphantom almost 9 years ago
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Question Answer
CO-HYPONYMS same type of subordinate group eg: banana and apple are a part of fruit
What does a SYLLABLE TREE look like? sigma / \ O R / \ N C
CATEGORIES WITHIN CONTENT (Lexical) words (5) - NOUNS -VERBS -ADJECTIVES -ADVERBS -PREPOSITIONS
I can ______ verb
The _____ thing ADJECTIVE
[ ] can be good/bad Noun Phrase
It/They can [ ] Verb Phrase
It/They can *BE* [ ] or [ ] Adj. Phrase or Prep Phrase
How is the PHRASE TREE set up? XP / \ Spec X' / \ X Comp
What is the ENTITY in a sentence called? SUBJECT
What is the EVENT that an entity is involved in called? PREDICATE ( veerrrbs)
ENTITIES are usually described by ____, therefore SUBJECTS have the form of a ____ ____ (_ _) Nouns Noun Phrase (NP)
It came ___ the house PREPOSITION
What does a [ Transitive Verb do? - has a Direct Object & acts on something else eg: kick [the ball] (v) (d.o.)
What is [ Intransitive??? - *NOOO* direct object or transfer
What is a [ Ditransitive Verb? - has Direct Object and Indirect Object - can rearrange! eg: [send a message] [to Barb] D.O. I.O. or eg: send [Barb] [a message] V NP VP
What is a [ Transitive Locative verb? -has a direct object and a location eg: put [ the book ] [ on the shelf ] D.O (VP) PP
What is a [ Linking Verb? - verb that links the phrase back to the subject eg : (BE) I am -very tired - in the library -a good worker
HOMOGRAPHY when the words are SPELLED the same, but don't sound the same eg: pen/pen or dove/dove
HOMONYMY when words that are spelled/sound the same mean different things BAT (animal) and (baseball) BAT
ENTAILMENT when one sentence is true, the other is also but not vise versa S1 = S2 but S2 doesn't = S1
SYNONYMY one meaning / multiple forms
POLYSEMY when a word has the same spelling and sounds the same with related but diff. meanings MOUSE (animal) vs. MOUSE (computer)
PARAPHRASE when two sentences mean the same thing in a rearranged way -works both ways S1 = S2 S2 = S1
MERONYM part of a whole eg: tail
HYPONYMS HYPO = TYPE-O type of something eg: bluejay = bird
HOMOPHONY when words sound the same but aren't spelled the same eg: flower / flour
ANTONYMS (2 categories) GRADABLE: opposites on a scale eg: COLD ... cool... tepid.. warm.. HOT NON-GRADABLE/ABSOLUTE: form a dichotomy
What are the [ QUALIFER ] words ( 6 ) ~ 2 categories limit frequency: always sometimes never frequently limit scope: just only
The ____ of the ... NOUN
Types of Spec. & what they go with. ( 3 Spec. 1 Spec has 2) Determiner ( N ) Qualifier ( V ) Degree ( A&P)
Qualifier (Adverbs) ( BEFORE / AFTER ) a ( N/V/A/P ) ? and what does it do? BEFORE A VERB LIMITS
AUXILARY (helping) come ( BEFORE / AFTER) a ( N/V/A/P )? *but* give ____ info? BEFORE A VERB GRAMMATICAL
modals (9) can - could will - would shall - should may / might / must
Non-Spatial Preps. (8) of - far - from at - about - by with - to
SENTENCE TREE structure IP / \ NP I' / \ I VP NP = subject I = non-past/past or modals VP = predicate
What is AFFIXATION? productive way in which new words have entered English language eg: KING-ly re-FOREST-ation
what is an ACRONYM? Initials stand for long expression eg: SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
what is BACKFORMATIONS creating a new, shorter word from an existing word pre - ROOT -suffix eg: resurrection --> resurrect donation --> donate
what is BLENDING combining two existing words into one (only the spelling) eg: brunch, guesstimate, motel, ligers
what is BORROWING adopting words from other languages eg: kindergarten zero
what is CLIPPING shortening of a word by deleting 1 or more syllable eg: Liz, Bob, lab., ling.
what is CLITICIZATION putting 2 content words together except one's been phonetically reduced & pronounced as 1 word eg: You'*re* I'*m* he'*s* "they'RE, not THEIR"
what is COINAGE? creating a word from scratch usually from a product eg: Kleenex, swiffer.
what is COMPOUNDING? combining pre-existing ROOTS may be hyphenated eg: undercoat slavetrade blackboard blow-dry
what is CONVERSION? changing syntactic category eg: Butter N --> V (butter the toast) Down P --> V (down your drink)
what is an EPONYM? naming something after someone eg: Ferris wheel cardigan (Earl of Cardigan)
what is INITIALISM? pronounce initials HRT, UN, brb, jk, lol, wtf, fml
what is an ONOMATEPOEIA? sound words. BAM POW CRACK CRUNCH MOO SIZZLE BANG
what is SENSE EXTENSION taking a pre-existing word and extending meaning to include additional & distinct (but related) meanings like POLYSEMY mouse / mouse
what is STRESS CHANGE? Bisyllabic English words i) Nouns --> 1st syll stress ii) Verbs --> 2nd syll stress eg: contést vs. cóntest recórd vs. récord
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