|What are protein molecules made up of?
|Long chains of amino acids
|What can proteins be?
|Structural components of tissue, such as muscle. Hormones. Antibodies. Catalysts.
|Chemical reactions in cells are controlled by...
|Enzymes are biological catalysts-
|They speed up reactions
|Enzymes are large proteins and have a shape vital for its function. This shape has an area called
|The 'Active Site'
|The substrate in a reaction can be held in the
|Active site (and either be connected to another molecule or broken down).
|-Build large molecules from many smaller ones (building starch from glucose molecules) -Change ones molecule into another (convert one type of sugar into another) -Break down large molecules into smaller ones (all digestive enzymes do this)
|Enzyme activity is affected by...
|Temperature and pH.
|Enzyme reactions take place faster when it's...
|If the temperature gets too hot the enzyme stops working because...
|The active site changes shape. The enzyme becomes denatured.
|Each enzyme works in different pH levels. If it becomes too acidic or alkaline the...
|Active site changes shape and the enzyme becomes denatured.
|What is meant by the term 'denatured'?
|When the enzymes can no longer function.
|Digestive enzymes are produced by...
|Specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut.
|What is digestion?
|The breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules.
|Produced in the salivary glands, the pancreas and small intestine. Breaks down starch into sugars.
|Is produced in the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine. Breaks down proteins into amino acids.
|Is produced by the pancreas and small intestine. Breaks down lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol.
|Which enzymes digests starch?
|Protease enzymes work best in .... conditions.
|Acidic conditions. Glands in the stomach wall produce hydrochloric acid t create very acidic conditions.
|Amylase and Lipase work best in .... conditions.
|Slightly alkaline conditions.
|Where is bile produced and stored?
|Produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
|How enzymes can be used: Biological detergents
|Contain proteases and lipase that digest food stains. They work at a lower temperature than normal powders which saves energy and money.
|How enzymes can be used: Baby Food
|Protease is used in baby food to pre-digest the food to make it easier for babies to eat as their stomachs aren't able to do it themselves.
|How enzymes can be used: Isomerase
|Is used to convert glucose into fructose syrup. Fructose is sweeter so less is needed in food so the food is less fattening.
|How enzymes can be used: Carbohydrates
|Are used to convert starch into sugar syrup for use in foods.
|Advantages of using enzymes:
|-Biological washing powders are very good at removing stains in clothes. -Biological washing powders can be used at lower temperatures. -Can be used in medicine to diagnose, control or cure diseases. -In industry, cost of equipment and energy can be reduced.
|Disadvantages of using enzymes:
|Can cause allergic reactions from the washing powder. Enzymes can enter the waterways via the sewage system. Industrial enzymes can be costly to produce. Enzymes denature at high temperatures. Fabrics, such as wool, will be digested by proteases.
|Which two factors can alter the shape of an enzymes?
|Temperature and pH.
|Where is amylase produced?
|Salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.
|What are the products of lipid digestion?
|Fatty acids and glycerol.
|Which acid is produced in the stomach?
|What is the function of bile?
|To makes the pH of the small intestine slightly alkaline.
|Why are proteases used in baby foods?
|To pre-digest the food to make it easier for the baby to digest
|Give two types of reaction controlled by enzymes in the cells.
|Builds large molecules from small molecules. Changes one molecule into another. Breaks down large molecules into small molecules.
|Why do biological washing powders work more efficiently than non-biological powders?
|The enzymes speed up the rate that stains can be removed and a lower temperature is needed which uses less energy and saves money.