Geology Flashcards

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GEOL Geology Flashcards on Geology Flashcards, created by itzel.jm on 13/10/2014.
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Flashcards by itzel.jm, updated more than 1 year ago
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Question Answer
What differences religion, art, law from science? Religion, art and law are absolute doctrines, where as Science is relative its in constant development.
Who is the founder of the natural philosophy? Thales Miletus
1.-What is the name of our galaxy? 2.-How many stars does it approximately have? 3.-What does it consist of mostly? 1.-The solar system resides in the Milky Way 2.-conglomeration of approx. 200 million starts 3.- It consist mostly spaced starts, and dense dust.
1.-What is the diameter of the MW? 2.-Mass of the MW? 3.- How far from the center is the sun, in the MW? 4.-What kind of shape does the MW has when seen in edge view? 1.- approx. 80,000 light years 2.-approx. 750 billion times the mass of the sun 3.- 22,000 light years from center 4.-lens shape
How many arms there are in the galaxy? What are their names? In which one is the Earth situated? The galaxy has 4 arms Sagittarius, Cygnus-Orion, Perseus,Centaurus. The Solar System is in the Cygnus-Orion arm.
What is the name of the closest galaxies to the MW? Andromeda and Canis Major Dwarf
What does this man discovered? He discovered the RED-SHIFT ( moving away from the Earth), and BLU_SHIFT (moving towards the Earth) of galaxies.
Who is this man, and what did he provide to Science? Astronomer Edwin Hubble, who observed the farther away the galaxy is, the faster it is receding. He provided evidence to assume that the universe is expanding. A Paradigm level ( accepted views of the subject)
What are some characteristics of Science? Entirely relative, Science is not agnostic (agnostic.-cannot know), developed through contradiction and debate, science does not accept directionality.
Anaximander of Miletus, what did he do? He produced the first map of the known world
In Astronomy, what were his considerations about the celestial bodies He considered that the earth was at the centre and the planets and the moon revolving around it.
Who created this system, and what is it name? Ptolemy of Alexandria, and that is the "geocentric" the earth at the centre of the system.
Who is this man and what did he provided to science? That is Nicolaus Copernicus, he provided the "heliocentric" system where the sun is the center and the other celestial bodies orbit around it.
When does the expansion of the universe initiated? 13.7-13.8 billion years ago
What are the two major subdivisions of geology? What is their difference? Physical Geology: focuses on earth components and processes. Historical Geology: formation and evolution of our planet, and all its supersystems. Difference: physical geology is bout CHANGE, historical geology is about EVOLUTION.
designed the first? discovered of Jupiter? Telescope, discovered Jupiter four natural satellites: Io, Europa, Callisto,Ganymede.
Johannes Kepler demonstrated that? The planets move around the Sun on elliptical orbits.
The Royal Society of London was established? 1660
He published the first papers in Geology, about? The principles of layer formation
Our galaxy is part of the______? And that group is part of a greater agglomeration of stars, the ________? 1.Local group (cluster) of galaxies 2.Virgo Supergroup (Supercluster)
Explains the initiation of the universe
Measure the discrete temperature fluctuations in the deepest regions of the space.
Plotted the oldest light in the universe.
Nebulae? Concentrations of interstellar gas and dust. Eagle Nebulae- BIRTHPLACE OF STARS
Stars? H and He Star life depends on its consumption of Hydrogen, due to shrinking. Gravitational contraction.
From smallest to largest star sizes? Earth Sirius B Proxima Centauri Sun Syrius A Rigel Antares
???? The SUN radiates energy due to continuos thermonuclear reactions. thermonuclear reactions-H combines to form He
SUN?? 98.8% of the total mass of solar system Temperature of 20 million degrees celsius Amount of radiation receive is INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL with the distance from the sun
The solar system is composed of? The sun, 9 planets, natural satellites, asteroids, comets, meteorites, space dust
Natural satellite of the Earth Diameter of !/4 of Earth's 1 of the largest natural satellites Surface consists of depression regions, and highlands. Surface shows numerous craters
Terrestrial planets? Small,rocky surface, thin atmosphere My Very Easy Method (Mars, Venus,Earth,Mars)
Jovian planets? Larger, gaseous, thick atmosphere, rings Just Speeds Up Names (Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus,Neptune)
Icy Planets? Small, surface covered with thick layer of ice PLUTO
Internal Structure of Rocky planets?
Jupiter natural satellites? Io Europa Callisto Ganymede
What is special about Io? Its active volcanoes
Saturn natural satellites? 31, largest one TITAN
Neptune largest natural satellite? TRITON
LARGEST ASTEROID? CERES
FLYING MOUNTAINS? ASTEROIDS
COMETS CONSIST MOSTLY OF? CH4, NH3,CO2,CO,H2O
TYPES OF METEORITES? STONY- SILICON COMPOSITION (chondrites) IRON- IRON AND NICKEL ALLOYS COMPOSITION STONY-IRON.- SILICON AND IRON-NICKEL ALLOYS COMPOSITION
SPACE DUST CONSIST MOSTLY OF?? C, Mg, Fe, Ca
Solar Nebulae Theory? Kant- Laplace theory formation of earth as part of the solar system developed by I. Kant improved by Laplace
Solar nebulae theory phases? 1.contracting cold cloud 2. rotating and heating cloud 3.chaotic swirling & incipient accretion 4.formation of protoplanets & protosun 5.birth of sun 6.major collisions and readjustments
Mass of the Earth? 5.973x10^24 kg
Density of Earth? 5.5 g/cm^3
Radius of earth? 6378.1 km at the Equator 6356.8 km at the Pole Average of 6371km
Crystallography? Study of Crystals
Study of minerals composition, architecture, physical properties and occurence of minerals Mineralogy
Study of rocks, and subdisciplines Petrology; 1.Igneous 2.Sedimentary 3.Metamorphic
Study of Sediments Sedimentology
Study of fossils Paleontology
Study of layers and bodies of rocks arrangements in Earths interior Stratigraphy
Structural Geology 3D distribution of rock units w/deformation history
Geochemstry study of composition of Earth, chemical reactions in natural environment, with chemistry tools
Geochronology Geological time in absolute values
Tectonics regional geological features
Geophysics physical properties & materials in its composition
Geomorphology Landscape formation
Seismology Earthquakes
Earth Formation phases Nebulae Theory Particle concentration Formation of rock chunk Gradual increase in size Primordial gravitational field (attraction of particle, inelastic collisions, collision with asteroids, rock fragments) radioactive decay(heat & energy) Gravitational differentiation (sinking of high specific gravity metals to the core, lighter mineral floating to the mantle)
Outcrops degradation changes original composition
Water, Mineral and Oil exploration rarely beyond 10km, often <3km
explosive detonation propagation of seismic wave(chemical composition, environmental characteristics, subsurface fluids) reflection of seismic waves layers and discontinuities inferred (arrival times)
Earthquakes natural discharge of mechanical energy in the subsurface seismic observations by seismograms (amplitud, magnitude, epicenter and hypocentre position calculation)
When _____waves are used, the discontinuities in the subsurfaces corresponds to _______, it is possible to study ____ wave propagation in order to investigate the _______ architecture in the Earth interior. 1.Seismic 2.boundaries between layers 3.seismic wave 4.strata
The place where an eartquake actually happens is known as the___? Hypocenter of focus
From the 2 types of wave function of the direction of seismic waves during an earthquake, which one travels in the Earth interior? and which one in the shallowest parts? Body waves travel inside the Earth's interior Surface waves travels in the shallowest parts
Which waves are produce during the energy discharged? (in an earthquake) BODY WAVES
What are the types of BODY waves? primary (P-waves the fastest, first to be recorded) and also known as shear waves secondary (S-waves)
Two kinds of Surface waves? Vertical surface waves Horizontal surface waves (both slow)
Earth internal structure Chemical Subdivisions CORE MANTLE CRUST
Earth Internal Structure Inner Core Outer Core Mesosphere Asthenosphere Lithosphere
THE CORE EARTH CENTRE SOLID/MOLTEN STATTE Fe DOMINATED SUBDOMINANT IN Ni AVG DENSITY 11g/cm^3
THE MANTLE SEPARATES CORE FROM CRUST PREDOMINANTLY MADE OF SILICON, Mg and Fe 80% by volume of earths internal structure
GUTTENBERG DISCONTINUITY LIES AT THE BOUNDARY OF WHAT TWO LAYERS? THE MANTLE AND OUTER CORE
THE CRUST SILICATE DOMINATED
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE DISCONTINUITY THAT BOUNDS THE CRUST WITH THE MANTLE? THE MOHOROVICHICH DISCONTINUITY
DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER TO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH? 6400 KM
WHAT KEEPS THE INNER CORE SOLID(IN CONTRAST WITH THE OUTER CORE)? THE HIGH PRESSURES
INNER CORE DOMINATED BY? (CONSISTED OF) IRON-NICKEL
MATTER STATE OF INNER CORE? SOLID IN NATURE, DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE
OUTER CORE, STATE? AND IT IS DIRECTLY UNDER THE______DISCONTINUITY? LIQUID STATE, GUTTENBERG DISCONTINUITY, CONSISTED DOMINANTLY OF IRON AND NICKEL
MESOSPHERE CORRESPONDS TO THE? OUTER MOST LAYER SOLID AND HIGH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
ASTHENOSPHERE CORRESPONDS? TO THE PARTS OF THE UPPER MANTLE, HIGH TEMPERATURE AND REDUCES PRESSURE ZONE. EXIST IN PLASTIC STATE AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO GRADUAL FLOW.
LITHOSPHERE CORRESPONDS TO? CHARACTERIZED BY? OUTER MOST LAYER, CRUST, CHARACTERIZED BY MOVEMENT AND TEARING APART
ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH? CRUST? CORE? HIGH VARIABILITY WITHIN THE CRUST IRON AND NICKEL FROM THE CORE 90% Fe, Si, O, Mg
WHAT IS WEATHERING? PHYSICAL DISINTEGRATION OR FRAGMENTATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF SOLID ROCKS
BREAKDOWN OF SOLID ROCKS, FORMATION OF SEDIMENT AND NEW LANDFORMS, DOES NOT INVOLVE THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS, CORRESPONDS TO___? WEATHERING
WHAT IS MASS MOVEMENT? SLOW OR RAPID MOVEMENT OF SOIL OR ROCKS DOWNSLOPE DUE TO GRAVITY
WEATHERING FACTORS? CLIMATE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION TIME GEOLOGICAL FEATURES SURFACE AREA
CLIMATE WEATHERING DEPENDS ON? TEMPERATURE RAINFALL/WATER
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION WEAHERING DEPENDS ON? MINERAL STABILITY
IS A?? INCOMPETENT ROCK
IS A?? COMPETENT ROCK, BECAUSE THERE IS NO FRACTURES THAT COULD LEAD TO CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICA OR CLIMATE WEATHERING
WHAT IS MECHANICAL WEATHERING? PHYSICAL BREAKDOWN OF INTACT ROCKS WITHOUT ANY CHEMICAL ALTERATION
BREAKDOWN INFLUENCED BY WIND,WATER,GLACIER AND GRAVITY IS WHAT KIND OF WEAHERING? MECHANICAL WEATHERING
WHAT ARE THE MECHANISM OF MECHANICAL WEATHERING? STRESS RELEASE FREEZING AND THAWING CYCLE FRICTION AND ABRASION
ARE TYPES OF? MECHANICAL WEATHERING
WHAT IS JOINTING? DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE RELEASE(FROM EROSION) ON ROCK ORIGINALLY IN THE SUBSURFACE, THERE ARE CRACKS FORM THOSE ARE THE JOINTS
FROST WEDGING? WHAT IS IT?
WHAT IS EXFOLIATION ON ROCKS? COMBINATION OF PRESSURE RELEASE AND THE CYCLIC HEATING AND COOLING OF ROCKS ONION LIKE PEELING OF ROCKS
WHAT IS CHEMICAL WEATHERING? ROCK ALTERATION BY CHEMICAL RXN, LEADS TO CHANGE IN COMPOSITION.
SURFACE AREA IS A N IMPORTANT FACTOR OF __________WEATHERING? CHEMICAL WEATHERING
SOLUTION/DISSOLUTION IN CHEMICAL WEATHERING REPRESENTS MINERALS DISSOLVING IN ROCKS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF CATIONS AND ANIONS
HYDROLYSIS IN CHEMICAL WEATHERING OCCURS WHEN? ROCKS REACT WITH WATER AND NEW PRODUCTS ARE FORMED
WHAT DOES HYDROLYSIS USUALLY LEADS TO FORMATION OF? CLAYS AND QUARTZ
CHEMICAL WEATHERING: OXIDATION? REACT WITH O IN AIR OR WATER COLOR CHANGE IS COMMON LOSS OF ELECTRONS
RUST IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF? OXIDATION
WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING? WEAKENING AND DISINTEGRATION OF ROCKS BY PLANTS, ANIMALS MICROBES
BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING CAN BE______? MECHANICAL OR CHEMICAL LEAST TYPE OF WEATHERING
MECHANISMS OF BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING ARE? BURROWING OF ANIMALS PLANT ROOT GROWTH HUMAN ACTIVITIES
MASS MOVEMENT FACTORS? SLOPE STEEPNESS WATER VEGETATION GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
HOW DOES WATER AFFECTS MASS MOVEMENT? IT CAN INCREASE WEIGHT LEADING TO STRESS BUILT UP, ADSORPTION OF WATER IN MINERALS CAN REDUCE FRICTION, CAN INCREASE AND REDUSE COHESION,CAN INCREASE MINERALS AND REDUCE COHESION
MORE PLANTS, LESS ______ MASS MOVEMENT
PLANTS REDUCES_____ FROM SOIL WATER
IN GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES, THE MORE FRACTIONS THERE ARE THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO MASS MOVEMENT_________? INCREASES
WHAT DOES SOIL CREE DOES ON TREE TRUNKS? IT CURVES THEM
SOIL CREEP INDICATORS? CURVED TREE TRUNKS TILTED POLES AND FENCES GROUND AND SOIL RIPPLES
REPRESENTS? SOIL CREEP
WHAT ARE SLUMPS? SOIL AND ROCKS SLIDING DOWN ALONG CONCAVE SLIP SURFACE
TRIGGERED BY? WAVE ACTION EROSION HUMAN ACTIVITY
WHAT DOES SLIDE REPRESENT ON MASS MOVEMENT? SLIDING OF SOIL OR ROCK MASS DOWNHILL IN AN INTACT UNIT
REPRESENTS? ICE SLIDE IT IS FAST!!!
ALL MASS MOVEMENT TYPES
FLOW IS FAST OR SLOW DOWNHILL? IT CONTAINS? FAST, MIXTURE F ROCK, SOIL AND WATER
WHAT DOES MUDFLOW CONTAINS? MATERIALS FINER THAN SAND
WHAT DOES DEBRIS FLAW CONTAINS? CONTAINS MATERIALS COARSER THAN SAND
WHERE DOES LAHAR FLOWS RESULTS FROM? FROM VOLCANIC ERUPTION, AS LAVA MOVEMENT
AVALANCHE, RAPID DOWNHILL MOVEMENT OF SNOW
WHAT ARE ROCKS? SOLID MADE OF MINERALS
WHAT IS A MINERAL? NATURALLY OCCURRING INORGANIC SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS SOLID DEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
WHAT IS A MINERALOID? BEHAVE LIKE MINERALS BUT ARE IN AMORPHOUS STATE DEVOID OF A CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE.
WHAT IS AN ATOM? SMALLEST UNIT IT DEFINES CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR ISOTOPES
ATOMIC NUCLEI? CENTER OF AN ATOM P(+) AND NEUTRONS(=)
WHAT IS AN ELECTRON CLOUD? CONSISTS OF ELECTRONS (-) AND ORBITALS
ATOMIC # # OF P(+) IN THE NUCLEUS
MASS # TOTAL= P(+) AND NEUTRONS(=)
ISOTOPES? ELEMENTS WITH SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS, AND DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
WHAT IS A MOLECULE? 2 OR MORE ATOMS HELD TOGETHER IN CHEMICAL BOND, THEY ARE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
WHAT IS A COMPOUND? MOLECULE OF AT LEAST TWO ATOMS OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
WHAT IS AN ION? WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES? ION IS THE ATOM/MOLECULE ATTAINMENT OF STABILITY BY GAIN/LOSS OF E(-) CATION (+) POSITIVELY CHARGE (LOSS OF ELECTRON(-)) ANION(-) NEGATIVELY CHARGE GAIN OF ELECTRON
WHAT IS BONDIND? TWO OR MORE ATOMS INVOLVE VALENCE ELECTRONS INVOLVED ATOMS OF THE SAME OR DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
TYPES OF BONDING? IONIC BONDING- TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS BETWEEN METALS AND NON-METALS(WEAK BOND) COVALENT- SHARING OF VALENCE E(-) (STRONG BOND)
WHAT ARE SOME MINERALS STUDY TECHNIQUES? HAND LENS, MICROSCOPE, X-RAY, ICP-MS (INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-MASS SPECTROMETRY)
MINERAL CRYSTAL SYSTEM: WHAT IS A CRYSTAL? UNIQUE ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES, BASED ON AXIAL LENGTH AND ANGLE
CRYSTAL TWO SUBDIVISIONS? I______ & A______ ISOMETRIC-EQUALLY DEVELOPED IN THE TREE DIRECTIONS OF SPACE ANISOMETRIC- LARGER IN 1 OR 2 DIRECTIONS
CUBIC CLASS OF CRYSTAL ALL ANGLES EQUAL ALL AXIS EQUAL
TETRAGONAL CRYSTAL 2-AXIS EQUAL AL ANGLES EQUAL SIX-FOLD SYMMETRY TREE-FOLD SYMMETRY
HEXAGONAL CRYSTAL 2-AXIS EQUAL 2-ANGLES EQUAL AT 90º 1-ANGLE AT 120º
TRIGONAL CRYSTAL ALL AXES EQUAL ALL ANGLES LESS THAN 120º NOT EQUAL TO 90º
ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTAL ALL AXIS EQUAL ALL ANGLES EQUAL AT 90º
MONOCLINIC ALL AXES UNEQUAL 2 ANGLES AT 90º 1 ANGLE GREATER THAN 90º
ALL AXES UNEQUAL ALL ANGLES UNEQUAL
MINERAL CRYSTAL CLASSES
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES COLOR STREAK HARDNESS LUSTER TWINNING HABIT CLEAVAGE FACES AND FORMS
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC COLOR AFFECTED BY IMPURITIES
PHYSICAL PROPERTY STREAK COLOR OF POWDER LEFT WHEN RUBBED AGAINST PORCELAIN TILE
LUSTER METALLIC AND NON-METALLIC
NON-METALLIC LUSTRE GREASY SILKY VITREOUS DULL
HARDNESS ON MINERLAS PHYSICAL PROPERTY MINERALS RESISTANCE TO SCRATCHING
WHAT SCALE IS USED TO MEASURE THE HARDNESS OF CRYSTALS? MOHS SCALE FROM 1 TO 10
DIAMOND IS THE # IN SCALE TALC IS THE # IN SCALE MOHS SCALE DIAMOND #10 HARDEST ONE TALC #1 SOFTEST ONE
FACES AND FORMS CRYSTAL PHYSICAL PROPERTY DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT OF MINERAL SHAPE
EUHEDRAL WELL FORMED CRYSTALS
SUBHEDRAL CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY OBSERVED BUT NO WELL DEFINED
ANHEDRAL NO DEFINED CRYSTAL MORPHOLOGY
HABIT ON MINERAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHARACTERISTIC APPEARANCE OF MINERALS
TYPES OF HABIT? EQUANT RHOMBOHEDRAL TABULAR BLADED PRISMATIC ACICULAR
HABIT TYPE? EQUANT
CLEAVAGE TYPES
HABIT: RHOMBOHEDRAL
WHAT KIND OF HABIT IS THIS? TABULAR HABIT
WHAT KIND OF HABIT IS THIS? BLADED HABIT
WHAT KIND OF HABITAT IS THIS? PRISMATIC HABITAT
WHAT KIND OF HABIT IS THIS? ACICULAR HABIT
WHAT IS TWINNING? INTER-GROWTH OF TWO OR MORE CRYSTAL OF THE SAME MINERAL
WHAT IS CLEAVAGE? SURFACE ARE PLANAR AND SMOOTH DESCRIBES THE BREAKAGE OF MINERALS ALONG PLANES OF WEAKNESS
TRANSPARENCY IN PHYSICAL PROPERTY REFERS TO HOW THE CRYSTAL LETS LIGHT PASS THROUGH IT
PARTING IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REPRESENT WEAKNESS SURFACES IN A MINERAL
MINERAL CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CRYSTALS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
NON-SILICATES GROUP OF MINERAL CLASSIFICATION NATIVE ELEMENTS OXIDES HALIDES SULFIDES/SULPHIDE CARBONATES SULFATES/SULPHATES
NATIVE ELEMENTS WHAT ARE THE THREE GROUPS COMPOSED OF SINGLE ELEMENT METALS SEMI METALS NON METALS
OXIDES MINERAL CLASSIFICATION FOUND IN ___TYPES OF ROCKS? METALLIC ELEMENTS AND OXYGEN FIND IN ALL TYPES OF ROCKS IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC
HALIDES METALIC ELEMENTS AND_____ COMBINATION OF METALLIC ELEMENT AND HALOGEN COMMON HALITE-NaCl
SULFIDE S SULFUR ANION IS A KEY COMPONENT METALLIC LUSTRE e.g.- PYRITE FeS2
SULFATES (SO2)^2- FOUND IN FOUND IN ALL TYPES OF ROCKS WIDE VARIETY IN COLOR e.g. GYPSUM- CaSO4*2H2O
CARBONATES (CO3)^2- CATIONS MADE OF METALS CONTAINS CARBONATE ANION e.g. Calcite CaCO3
SILICATES (SiO4)^4- CONSTITUDE ABOUT ___% OF MINERALS IN THE CRUST AND MANTLE 90% CONTAINS SILICATE(Si,O)
WHAT IS THE COMPOSITION OF A SILICA TETRAHEDRA? ONE ATOM OF SILICON IN THE MIDDLE, WITH FOUR ATOMS OF OXYGEN ARANGE LIKE THIS:
SUBDIVISIONS OF SILICA TETRAHEDRA NESOSILICATES INOSILICATES SOROSILICATES PHYLLOSILICATES TECTOSYLLICATES CYCLOSYLLICATES
NESOSILICATES CHARACTERISTICS? SILICA TETRAHEDRA NO JOINED TO EACH OTHER BONDS TO CATIONS ONLY, WITH IONIC BOND OLIVINE-(Fe,Mg)2SiO4
INOSILICATES CHARACTERISTICS SILICA TETRAHEDRA SHARE 2 OXYGEN WITH OTHER SILICA TETRAHEDRA COVALENT BOND BETWEEN TETRAHEDRA
SOROSILICATES ALSO DOUBLE CHAIN SILICATES ADJACENT SILICA TETRAHEDRA SHARE TWO OR THREE OXYGENS, DUE COVALENT BOND CATIONS BONDED TO TETRAHEDRA DUE IONIC BOND
PHYLLOSILICATES OR SHEET-SILLICATES SILICA TETRAHEDRA SHARED THREE OXYGEN ATOMS WITH OTHER TETRAHEDRA, WITH COVALENT BOND
TECTOSILICATES ALSO FRAMEWORK SILICATES SHARE FOUR OXYGEN ATOMS WITH OTHER TETRAHEDRA THREE DIMENSIONAL FRAMEWORK FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE
CYCLOSILICATES ALSO RING SILICATES 3,4,6 SILICA TETRAHEDRA SHARE TWO OXYGEN ELECTRONS BERYL----->
HOW ARE IGNEOUS ROCKS FORM? THROUGH THE COOLING AND SOLIDIFICATION OF MOLTEN MATTER MAGMA OR LAVA TRANSFORMATION FROM LIQUID AND GASEOUS TO SOLID
WHAT IS MAGMA? MOLTEN MATTER AT SUBSURFACE TEMP. 700º TO 1300º SLOWER COOLING
WHICH ONE OF THESE COOLS FASTER? LAVA OR MAGMA LAVA COOLS FASTER
WHAT IS LAVA? MOLTEN MATTER CAN BE EXPLOSIVE TEMP. 700º TO 1300º
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE BETWEEN LAVA AND MAGMA? NONE, BOTH RANK BETWEEN 700º TO 1300ºC
IGNEOUS ROCKS CLASSIFICATION CRYSTALLINITY GRAIN SIZE CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL MODE OF OCCURRENCE
WHAT IS CRYSTALLINITY BASED ON? DEGREE OF CRYSTALLIZATION, TEXTURAL CLASSIFICATION, COOLING HISTORY
WHAT IS NUCLEATION? FIRST STEP IN THE FORMATION OF MATTER FROM ANOTHER STATE
WHAT ARE THE TWO GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS? INTRUSIVE ROCKS-MAGMA SOLIDIFICATION BENEATH THE SURFACE SLOW COOLING, eg GRANITE EXTRUSIVE ROCKS-LAVA CRYSTALLIZATION AT EARTH SURFACE FAST COOLING, eg BASALT
CRYSTALLINITY REFERS TO RATIO OF MINERALS AND GLASS IN THE COMPOSITION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS
TREE SUBDIVISIONS OF CRYSTALLINITY ARE? HOLOHYALLINE HOLOCYSTALLINE HYPOHYALINE OR HYPOCRYSTILLINE
HOLOHYALLINE GLASS CONSIST OF ENTIRELY AMORPHOUS SUBSTANCE, EXTRUSIVE INCLUDE HERE, FAST COOLING HISTORY
HOLOCYSTALLINE MINERALS CONSIST OF MINERALS ONLY, THIS CATEGORY ONLY INCLUDES INTRUSIVE, SLOW COOLING MAGMA
HYPOHYALINE OR HYPOCRYSTALLINE BOTH MINERALS AND GLASS IN THEIR MASS, CAN BE BOTH INTRUSIVE OR EXTRUSIVE.
GRAIN SIZE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL GRAINS
GRAIN SIZE DIFFERENT TEXTURES ARE? PHANERITIC TEXTURE APHANITIC TEXTURE GLASSY TEXTURE FRAGMENTAL TEXTURE
PHANERITIC TEXTURE LARGE GRAIN SIZES CAN BE SEEN WITH NAKED EYE SLOW MAGMA COOLING HISTORY INTRUSIVE ROCKS
APHANERITIC TEXTURE e.g.BASALT FINE GRAINS GRAIN LESS THAN 1MM GRAINS CANNOT BE SEEN WITH NAKED EYE FAST MAGMA COOLING
GLASSY TEXTURE FASTEST FASTEST COOLING PROCESS OF MOLTEN MATTER AT THE EARTHS SURFACE
FRAGMENTAL TEXTURE OCCURS WHEN MIXED IGNEOUS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CHARACTERISTIC ARE PRESENT
MAFIC MINERALS DARKER IN COLOR RICH IN IRON AND MAGNESIUM
FELSIC MINERALS LIGHT COLORES RICH IN SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND ALUMINIUM
ROCK FORMING MAFIC MINERALS THERE ARE 4 OLIVINE PYROXENES AMPHIBOLES BIOTITE
OLIVINE ON THE SUBDIVISON OF SILICATES IT IS A___? (SiO4)^4- NESOSILICATE
PYROXENES, SUBDIVISION OF SILICATES, SINGLE-______ INOSILICATES
AMPHIBOLES, ALSO DOUBLE-______ SILICATES SOROSILICATES
BIOTITE, ALSO SHEET SILICATE PHYLLOSILICATE
FELSIC GROUP PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR MUSCOVITE QUARTZ
FELSIC: PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR ALSO FRAMWORK SILICATES TECTOSILICATES(SHARE FOUR OXYGEN ATOMS BETWEEN SILICA TETRAHEDRA), FLEXIBLE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
FELSIC GROUP:MUSCOVITE PHYLLOSILICATE ( SHEET SILICATES, SHARES THREE OXYGEN ATOMS BETWEEN SILICA TETRAHEDRA WITH COVALENT BOND, AND IONIC BOND BETWEEN CATIONS)
FELSIC GROUP:QUARTZ FRAMEWORK SILICATES TECTOSILICATES CHEMICAL FORMULA SiO2
FELSIC ROCKS: GENERAL COLOR? RICH IN? COMPOSED OF? FORM THROUGH? EXAMPLES? LIGHT COLORED SODIUM AND POTASSIUM RICH FELDSPARS QUARTZ & MUSCOVITES SOLIDIFICATION OF GRANITIC MAGMA GRANITE, RHYOLITE
INTERMEDIATE ROCKS: MIXTURE OF? FORM FROM? FELDSPAR RICH IN? FELSIC AND MAFIC ROCKS FORMED FROM ANDESITIC MAGMA Na
MAFIC ROCKS: COLOR? RICH IN FELDSPAR? DOMINATED BY? DARK COLORED Ca FELDSPAR PYROXENES(INOSILICATES/ SINGLE CHAIN SILICATES) & OLIVINE(NESOSILICATES)
ULTRA MAFIC ROCKS: COLOR? COMINATED BY? HIGHEST? FORM FROM WHICH MAGMA? DARK COLORED DOMINATED BY OLIVINE & Ca- RICH FELDSPARS HAVE HIGHEST DENSITY ULTRAMAFIC MAGMA
EXTRUSIVE ARE FORM ABOVE THE EARTH SURFACE
INTRUSIVE ARE FORM BENEATH THE EARTH SURFACE
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS EXPLOSIVE EXPLOSIVE MEANS SILICA RICH LAVA GASES TRAPPED IN LAVA
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS NON-EXPLOSIVE LAVA FLOW MAGNESIUM AND IRON RICH LAVA SLOW MOVEMENT OF MOLTEN LAVA
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS TEXTURE VESICULAR GLASSY PYROCLASTIC PILLOW BASALTS
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