IGCSE Geography


Slide Set on IGCSE Geography, created by Chandra Vangsgaard on 23/04/2017.
Chandra Vangsgaard
Slide Set by Chandra Vangsgaard, updated more than 1 year ago
Chandra Vangsgaard
Created by Chandra Vangsgaard almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

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    Geography IGCSE
    Population and SettlementThe natural environment Economic development

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    Population and Settlement 
    1.1 population dynamics1.2 migration1.3 population structure1.4 population density and distribution1.5 settlement and service provision1.6 urban settlement1.7 urbanisation

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    1.1 population dynamics
    Describe and give reasons for the rapid increase in the world’s populationShow an understanding of over-population and under-population Understand the main causes of a change in population size Give reasons for contrasting rates of natural population change Describe and evaluate population policiesCauses and consequences of over-population and under-population How birth rate, death rate and migration contribute to the population of a country increasing or declining - Chinas one child policyImpacts of social, economic and other factors (including government policies, HIV/AIDS) on birth and death rates - Botswana  A country which is over-populated - Bangladesh  A country which is under-populated - Australia A country with a high rate of natural population growth - Nigeria A country with a low rate of population growth (or population decline) - Russia

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    Key terms
    birth rate; the number of birth per 1000 people per year death rate; the number of deaths per 1000 people per year natural increase; when the birth rate is larger than the death rate natural decrease; when the death rate is larger than the birth rate infant mortality rate; the number of babies who die before their first year per 100 live births replacement level; when you have the same amount of births as deaths peak child; in 2000 there were 2 billion children in the world extreme poverty; the line between the poorest and the poor (just a little more than $1) emancipated; freed from custom or tradition economic asset; when children is seen as an economic asset- working from early age economic burden; when you use money on children- clothes, food, education fertility rate; number of babies born per women

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    Key terms
    birth rate -  death rate = population growth sparsely populated; when the population is spread out per km2  densely populated; when the population is in a tight space per km2 overpopulated; when there are more people than recourses available underpopulated; when there are more resources than people  pro-natalist; encourage people to have babies anti-natalist; against people having babies incentives; prizes disincentive; fines, punishments

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    reasons for high death rate    food scarcity: with less food people are more likely to starve to death    high diseases level: with high levels of diseases its less likely there is a curereasons for low death rate    access to health care: with access to health care the high level of diseases could be curedreasons for high birth rate    religious value are less important: which means they can have sex before marriagereasons for low birth rate    lots of young children die: this means they could not reproduce, thus creating the next generation    women pursue careers: more women go to work instead of becoming a stay at home mom

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    population pyramids
    population pyramid; shows the population by categorising them into categories (for example age) concave - dipping inwards.- shows a rapid, increasing population growth convex - dipping outwards- shows a decreasing population growththe bottom of the pyramid  is called a basethe top of the pyramid is called the apex
    Caption: : population pyramid; age

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     stages 1 and 2 of population pyramids
    stage 1. birth rates are very high as people have children to help them work the land as well as look after their parents when they turn old. No contraception is used. Death rate is very high because of high level of diseases and no medical treatment, this means young children die. TRADITIONAL TRIBESstage 2. birth rate remains high because it is traditional to have large families. Death rate begins to drop because go improvements in the health care system and vaccines. also there is a improvement in quality and quantity of food and water supply. AFGHANISTAN
    Caption: : diffrent stages of population pyramids

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    stage 3. birth rates now level off at a low level as education and birth control programs become more available, and tradition of large families are lost.  children becomes an economic burden. BRAZILstage 4. birth now begins to fall because people are beginning to become more educated, birth control programs, more children survives. Death rate continues to fall then levels off as improvements in health care improve as well as water supply. GERMANY
    stage 3 and 4 of population pyramids
    Caption: : diffrent stages of population pyramids

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    population explotion
    why has the population grown?  the farmers started to produce more food which could feed more people better child survival because there has been an improvement in the health care system there are more women in the world today, which can produce more children what problems can overpopulation cause? traffic, the more people there is the move vehicles there are on the streets pollution as there as more people the amount of pollution increases as there is a higher demand for fuel high crime rate not enough health care and education for everyone lack of employment lack of housing food scarcity solution?educate people about birth control and contraception 

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    under population
    why do people choose to have less children? children are seen as an economic burden people are more educated on birth control  government restriction (chinas one child policy) people concentration on careers later marriages what problems can this cause shortage of workers difficult to defend the country economic decline need to raise taxed ageing population solutionoffer incentives based on the amount of children people have (tax reduction, reduction in school fee)

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    population growth in different rates
    why do population grow in different rates? education and availability about contreception quality of health care children - economic asset or burden availability of resources develop or developing country migration rate issues within the country (war, disease) population policies
    5 top country affected by HIV Botswana Lesotho South Africa Zimbabwe HIV has affected the population. If you look at the population pyramid you can see the infant mortality rate has fallen for ex. Botswana, because the unavailability of medical care children are dying at a younger age.

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    ageing population
    causes;  better diets improvement in health care population vaccines against deadly diseases effects; bigger burden on the economically active population people have to work more charges may be made for health care

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    1.2 Migration
    Explain and give reasons for population migration Demonstrate an understanding of the impacts of migrationInternal movements such as rural-urban migration, as well as international migrations, both voluntary and involuntaryPositive and negative impacts should be considered, on the destination and origin of the migrants, and the migrants themselves international migration - Mexico to USA

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    Key terms
    migration; the movement of people emigrants; people leaving their country immigrants; people who are migrating into a country migration balance; people migrating in - people migrate out temporary migration seasonal migration voluntary migration daily migration force migration push factors pull factors Interventing obstacles

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    1.3 Population Structure
    Identify and give reasons for and implications of different types of population structureAge/sex pyramids of countries at different levels of economic developmenta country with high dependent population - Japan or UK

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    1.4 population density and distribution
    Describe the factors influencing the density and distribution of populationPhysical, economic, social and political factors  country with a low population density - NW and NE Brazil country with a high population density - SE Brazil

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    Key terms
    population density sparsely populated densely populated even distribution uneven distribution 

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    case study on Brazil and how the goment made it hard to access to the amzone, and roads

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    1.5 settlement and service provision
    Explain the patterns of settlement Describe and explain the factors which may influence the sites, growth and functions of settlementsGive reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and servicesDispersed, linear, and nucleated settlement patternsInfluence of physical factors (including relief, soil, water supply) and other factors (including accessibility, resources) High-, middle- and low-order settlements and services. Sphere of influence and threshold populationsettlement and service provision in an are - London or SE England

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    1.6 Urban settlement
    Describe and give reasons for the characteristics of, and changes in, land use in urban areasExplain the problems of urban areas, their causes and possible solutionsLand use zones including the Central Business District (CBD), residential areas, industrial areas and the rural-urban fringe of urban areas in countries at different levels of economic development The effect of change in land use and rapid urban growth in an urban area including the effects of urban sprawl Different types of pollution (air, noise, water, visual), inequality, housing issues, traffic congestion and conflicts over land use changeAn urban area - LONDON’S ZONES, (POLLUTION AND MANAGEMENT METHODS

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    1.7 Urbanisationn
    Identify and suggest reasons for rapid urban growth Describe the impacts of urban growth on both rural and urban areas, along with possible solutions to reduce the negative impactsReference should be made to physical, economic and social factors which result in rural depopulation and the movement of people to major cities The effects of urbanisation on the people and natural environment. The characteristics of squatter settlements Strategies to reduce the negative impacts of urbanisation

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    The Natural Environment 
    2.1 earthquakes and volcanoes 2.2 rivers2.3 coast2.4 weather2.5 climate and the natural vegetation 

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    Key terms
    densitycompositionphysical stateasthenospherecrustmantleouter corethe corebasalttrenches continental crustoceanic crusttectonic plates plate boundariesconstructive plate boundariesdestructive plate boundaries conservative plate boundaries

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    earthquakes and volcanoes 2.1
    Describe the main types and features of volcanoes and earthquakesDescribe and explain the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes Describe the causes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and their effects on people and the environment Demonstrate an understanding that volcanoes present hazards and offer opportunities for people Explain what can be done to reduce the impacts of earthquakes and volcanoesTypes of volcanoes (including strato-volcanoes [composite cone] and shield volcano) Features of volcanoes (including crater, vent, magma chamber) Features of earthquakes (including epicentre, focus, intensity) The global pattern of plates, their structure, and an awareness of plate movements and their effects – constructive/divergent, destructive/convergent and conservative plate boundaries earthquake - Haiti (2010) or Japan (2011) volcano - Mt. St. Helen  

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    continental and oceanic crust
    continental crust mainly made out of granite thicker than basalt 30 - 50 km thick it's thicker but less dense the continental crust is mainly made out of granite, its thicker than basalt however it is less dense compared to basalt. This is because when molten rock cools down and solidifies the process is slower. As the molten rock cools, the larger the crystals become. For example, gabbro has larger crystals than basalt because the molten rock that formed gabbro cooled more slowly. The continental crust is 30 - 50 km thick.
    oceanic crust mainly made out of basalt thiner than granite 6 - 8 km thick it's thiner but denser the oceanic crust is mainly made out of basalt, and it's denser than the continental crust because it cools quicker creating smaller crystals due to its location under the sea or ocean. The oceanic crust is 6 - 8 km thick.. 

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    destructive (convergent)
    Caption: : example ; Nazca and the South American plate
    As the plates move toward each other the oceanic plate is destroyed because it is denser, forcing it beneath the less dense continental plate at a 45* angle. An ocean trench is created because the oceanic plate is dragged down. Friction between the two plates causes an earthquake, a volcano and more mountains to form. An example would be the Nazca and the South American plate. 

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    constructive (divergent)
    Caption: : example ; Iceland
    As two plates move away from each other molten rocks / magma rises to fill any possible gaps. As it dries up, it creates gabbro. Because the ocean is widening 2-3 cm per year it causes earthquakes and gentle volcanoes to form. This happens because convection current pushes them away from each other creating mid ocean ridges with volcanoes. An example would be Iceland.

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    Caption: : example; Mt. Everest (Himalayas) in India and Eurasian plate
    Here the continental crust can not sink or be destroyed. The collision of the two plates causes the inverting sediment (layers of material) to push upwards creating mountains. The continental plate is moving 25 mm per year. The hottest part of our earth is the core and it heats uptake magma above it, that pushes and drags the tectonic plates towards each other. An example would be the Himalayas. 

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    conservative / transform / passive
    As two plates slide past each other no plates are being destroyed, dragged towards each other or pushed down, thus no volcanoes or mountain are being formed. However an earthquake may appear if there is friction between the two plates. Thus shock waves are shot up causing an earthquake. An example would be The San Andreas Fault in California - the North American and Pacific plate.
    Caption: : The San Andreas Fault in California

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    convection currents
    The core is around 5500* C to 6000* C due to radioactive decay, this causes the magma to become less dense thus causes the magma rises towards the crust. This is because the particles are heated and begin to move apart. As the magma rises it hits the earths crust pulling it apart or colliding it towards each other (destructive / constructive plates). The then cools down becoming more dense and sinks down towards the core again. 

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    strato volcanosteepness of side6 - 10* slopes at the bottom and 30* near the summit. The steep slopes result from short, wide  and vicious eruptions. (Because rock and ash build up in thick layers around the volcano)eruption materialalternating layers of lava and pyroclastic material, because that is usually the material that comes out when its a more explosive and violent.type of boundarydestructive plate boundaries. The oceanic crust melts and rises up through the continental crust to erupt. they have massive violent and very loud explosions of rock and ash because they erupt very rarely and thus have a lot of trapped gases so huge pressure builds up from beneth
    shield volcanosteepness of sideit's a more gentle slope at 5* angle, and a steeper lower slope with a 10* angle. They usually have a rough circular or oval wide shape area.. Because the runny lava spreads out a long way from the point of eruption.eruption materialrunny lava, because the low viscosity allows the lava to flow quicklytype of boundaryconstructive plate boundaries. Because a gap is left and lava from the mantle rises up to create new land.they have more gentle eruptions with runny lava because they erupt more frequently and have no gases in them so no pressure builds up

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    why do people live near volcanoes
    fertile soil - the break down of volcanic rock produces soil rich in nutrients. This means that crops grow well and support large numbers of people to produce more than they need so that they can sell some. Example the Philippines around 30 000 people live around Mt. Pinatubo.geothermal energy - countries such as New Zealand and Iceland that have volcanic activity close to the surface use the heat from the volcanoes to produce about 70% of their energy needs by pumping water into the ground and releasing it as steam to drive turbines.tourism - many people are fascinated by volcanoes and like to visit them. This brings money into the area and encourage businesses such as hotels and shops and tour guides to set up in the area. An example would be Mt. St Helens minerals - when lava in a volcano cools it often leaves the area rich in minerals deposits such as gold, silver, copper and diamonds. This means that people can extract these by mining and make a living

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    lava divergent channels (tunnels leaving lava away) early prediction - seismometer, detects earthquakes by measuring the angle of bulge

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    impacts;  infrastructure damage death downfall of economy tsunami liquefaction landslide liquefaction is when water surfaces due to vibration of land

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    powerful forces pushes two huge mass of rock into each other. The rock stores up pressure as strain energy but suddenly the pressure becomes too much. One mass of rock gives away and will move upwards. The stored energy is released in waves. the shaking of the ground is called an earthquake as the rock settle into its new position there will be lots of smaller earthquakes called aftershocks focus; of the earthquake is the point where the waves startepicentre; is the point directly above it on the earths surface. 

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    case study
    Japan the earthquake lasted 5 minutes magnitude of 9 the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate pushed against each other  impacts the coast sank 1m waves then traveled 60km per sec here the waves are fast but not damaging yet however they slow down to 3km per second and become damaging Fucusima - destroyed power reactor the tsunami was 6km deep and over 800km per hour response warnings were send to people via phone the reactor was shut down however it was still in cooling process quickly set up shelters cleared the dead body washed ashore as it became unhygienic 

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    river 2.2
    Explain the main hydrological characteristics and processes which operate within rivers and drainage basins Demonstrate an understanding of the work of a river in eroding, transporting and depositing Describe and explain the formation of the landforms associated with these processes Demonstrate an understanding that rivers present hazards and offer opportunities for people Explain what can be done to manage the impacts of river floodingCharacteristics of rivers (including width, depth, speed of flow) and drainage basins (including watershed, tributary, confluence) Processes which operate in a drainage basin (including interception, infiltration, throughflow, groundwater flow, evaporation, overland flow) Forms of river valleys – long profile and shape in cross section, waterfalls, potholes, meanders, oxbow lakes, deltas, levées and flood plains Causes of hazards including flooding and river erosion Opportunities of living on a flood plain, a delta or near a river The opportunities presented by a river or rivers, the associated hazards and their management BANGLADESH,         DELTA, FLOODING IN BANGLADESH, THREE GORGES DAM/KISSIMMEE RIVER RESTORATION

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    coast 2.3
    Demonstrate an understanding of the work of the sea and wind in eroding, transporting and depositing Describe and explain the formation of the landforms associated with these processes Describe coral reefs and mangrove swamps and the conditions required for their development Demonstrate an understanding that coasts present hazards and offer opportunities for people Explain what can be done to manage the impacts of coastal erosionCliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches, stacks, bay and headland coastlines, beaches, spits, and coastal sand dunes Hazards including coastal erosion and tropical storms Cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches, stacks, bay and headland coastlines, beaches, spits, and coastal sand dunes          Hazards including coastal erosion and tropical storms 

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    weather 2.4 
    Describe how weather data is collected Make calculations using information from weather instruments Use and interpret graphs and other diagrams showing weather and climate data Describe and explain the characteristics, siting and use made of a Stevenson screen Rain gauge, maximum-minimum thermometer, wet-and-dry bulb thermometer (hygrometer), sunshine recorder, barometer, anemometer and wind vane, along with simple digital instruments which can be used for weather observations; observations of types and amounts of cloud 

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    climate and natural vegetation 2.5
    Describe and explain the characteristics of two climates:   • equatorial • hot desert Describe and explain the characteristics of tropical rainforest and hot desert ecosystems Describe the causes and effects of deforestation of tropical rainforestClimate characteristics (including temperature [mean temperature of the hottest month, mean temperature of the coolest month, annual range]; and precipitation [the amount and seasonal distribution]) Factors influencing the characteristics of these climates (including latitude, pressure systems, winds, distance from the sea, altitude and ocean currents) Climatic graphs showing the main characteristics of temperature and rainfall of the two climates The relationship in each ecosystem of natural vegetation, soil, wildlife and climate Effects on the natural environment (both locally and globally) along with effects on people an area of tropical rainforest - Borneo  tropical desert - Great Sandy Desert Australia

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    Economic development
    3.1 development3.2 food production3.3 industry3.4 tourism3.5 energy3.6 water3.7 environmental risk and development

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    development 3.1
    Use a variety of indicators to assess the level of development of a country Identify and explain inequalities between and within countries Classify production into different sectors and give illustrations of each Describe and explain how the proportions employed in each sector vary according to the level of development Describe and explain the process of globalisation, and consider its impactsIndicators of development (including GNP per capita, literacy, life expectancy and composite indices, e.g. Human Development Index (HDI) Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors Use of indicators of development and employment structure to compare countries at different levels of economic development and over time The role of technology and transnational corporations in globalisation along with economic factors which give rise to globalisation Impacts at a local, national and global scale a transitional cooperation and its global links - NIKE

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    food production 3.2
    Describe and explain the main features of an agricultural system: inputs, processes and outputs Recognise the causes and effects of food shortages and describe possible solutions to this problemFarming types: commercial and subsistence; arable, pastoral and mixed; intensive and extensive The influence of natural and human inputs on agricultural land use. Inputs including natural inputs (relief, climate and soil) and human inputs (economic and social). Their combined influences on the scale of production, methods of organisation and the products of agricultural systems Natural problems which cause food shortages (including drought, floods, tropical storms, pests) along with economic and political factors (including low capital investment, poor distribution/transport difficulties, wars) The negative effects of food shortages, but also the effects of food shortages in encouraging food aid and measures to increase output  a farm agriculture system - rice paddies (banjar tangtu) comercial farming - Swaziland

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    industry 3.3
    Demonstrate an understanding of an industrial system: inputs, processes and outputs (products and waste) Describe and explain the factors influencing the distribution and location of factories and industrial zonesIndustry types: manufacturing, processing, assembly and high technology industry The influence of factors including land, labour, raw materials and fuel and power, transport, markets and political factors Their combined influences on the location, scale of production, methods of organisation and the products of the system Industrial zones and/or factories with respect to locational and siting factors industrial zone - high tech industry Bangladore, India

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    tourism 3.4 
    Describe and explain the growth of tourism in relation to the main attractions of the physical and human landscape Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of tourism to receiving areas Demonstrate an understanding that careful management of tourism is required in order for it to be sustainablean area of high tourism - Bali, Indonesia 

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    energy 3.5
    Describe the importance of non-renewable fossil fuels, renewable energy supplies, nuclear power and fuelwood; globally and in different countries at different levels of development Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of nuclear power and renewable energy sourcesNon-renewable fossil fuels including coal, oil and natural gas.Renewable energy supplies including geothermal, wind, HEP, wave and tidal power, solar power and biofuels energy supply in a country - China

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    water 3.6 
    Describe methods of water supply and the proportions of water used for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes in countries at different levels of economic development Explain why there are water shortages in some areas and demonstrate that careful management is required to ensure future suppliesMethods of water supply (including reservoirs/ dams, wells and bore holes, desalination) The impact of lack of access to clean water on local people and the potential for economic development water supply in a country and management method - SW USA and The Colorado River

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    environmental risk and development 3.7
    Describe how economic activities may pose threats to the natural environment, locally and globally Demonstrate the need for sustainable development and management Understand the importance of resource conservationThreats to the natural environment including soil erosion, desertification, enhanced global warming and pollution (water, air, noise, visual) an area where economic development is taking place causing the environment at risk - Linfen, China

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