A brief summary of the macromolecules, their structure, and function.
Savannah Reynolds
Slide Set by Savannah Reynolds, updated more than 1 year ago
Savannah Reynolds
Created by Savannah Reynolds almost 5 years ago

Resource summary

Slide 1

    Molecules present in living organisms.  Most are organic molecules - containing carbon Carbon, Oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up >96% of human's body mass  

Slide 2

    Macromolecules of Life
    Large molecules made of smaller subunits joined together  4 Basic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid

Slide 3

    Building Macromolecules
    Except for lipids, macromolecules exist in 2 forms Monomer - simplest unit Polymer - Large molecule made of repeating monomers   Polymers become monomers by adding water Monomers become polymers by removing water   *Dehydration Synthesis: Used to join monomers to make polymers  *Hydrolysis: Used to break polymers to make monomers

Slide 4

    Let's explore the 4 Macromolecules
    The structure             a. Elements needed             b. Monomer             c. Polymer     2. Function     3. Examples

Slide 5

    Macromolecule 1
    Carbohydrates Elements included: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (C6 H12 O6) Monomer: Monosaccharide - means one sugar  Polymer: Polysaccharide - means many sugars Disaccharide - means two sugars Functions: Provides short term energy Primary source of energy Structural Support Found in shells, exoskeletons, and cell walls. Examples: Sugars and starches  Pasta, bread, rice, milk, fruits, and vegetables If it ends in "ose", it is a sugar
    Caption: : Monomer of Carbohydrate or a Monosaccharide

Slide 6

    Macromolecule 2
    Lipids Elements included: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Monomer: Lipid (Glycerol heads and fatty acid chains) Polymer: Lipids do not form polymers Functions: Long term energy storage More efficient energy than carbohydrates  Water barrier/insulator Cell membrane made of phospholipids  Examples Fats and Oils Triglycerides Waxes Steroids
    Caption: : Monomer of Lipid

Slide 7

    Macromolecule 3
    Proteins Elements needed: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and SOMETIMES sulfur Monomer: Amino acid Polymer: Polypeptide - proteins are chains of amino acids held together by a peptide bond Functions: Building and connecting living things such as collagen, that forms bone, tendons, and cartilage Takes part in chemical reactions such as enzymes  Source of energy Examples: Meats Nuts Eggs Beans
    Caption: : Polypeptide

Slide 8

    Macromolecule 4
    Nucleic Acid Elements needed: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous Monomer: Nucleotide - consists of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base Polymer: Many nucleotides Functions:  Carry genetic material Energy Carrier Examples:  DNA RNA ATP
    Caption: : Monomer of Nucleic Acid or a Nucleotide

Slide 9

    Chemical Reactions form new substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds Chemical reactions change the way molecules are arranged  Reactants: present at the beginning of the reaction Products: substances formed by the chemical reaction Example: Combustions CH4 + 2O2 -> 2H2O Reactants -> Products Enzymes' quaternary structure helps them function Active site*  that complements the substrate/reactant  Speeds up chemical reactions - Catalyst Chemical reactions happen no matter what. Enzymes do not cause reactions, but they speed things up. * Has to match the reactants

Slide 10

    Enzymes pt ll
    Step 1: Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites.    Step 2: The enzyme brings substrates together and weakens their bonds.   Step 3: The catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme. 

Slide 11

    Denaturing of Enzymes
    Activation Energy: Energy it takes for a reaction to occur Enzymes lower the activation energy If enzymes quaternary structure is denatured (altered), it cannot function Change in temperature Change in pH Substrate (reactant) concentration also has an effect on enzyme activity. 
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