CARBOHYDRATES & SUGARS

Description

Mind-Map of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. This does not attempt to have the whole of the specification on this topic covered but should have most of it :-)
Eleanor H
Mind Map by Eleanor H, updated more than 1 year ago
Eleanor H
Created by Eleanor H about 8 years ago
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Resource summary

CARBOHYDRATES & SUGARS
  1. Monosaccharides
    1. reducing sugars
      1. Properties
        1. sweet tasting
          1. soluble
          2. Benedict's Test
            1. forms red precipitate of Copper (I) Oxide
            2. GLUCOSE
              1. 2 isomers
                1. Beta: Hydroxyl group at top
                  1. TIP: "It's Better so it's at the top"
                  2. Alpha: Hydoxyl group at bottom
                2. FRUCTOSE
                  1. GALACTOSE
                  2. Disaccharides
                    1. MALTOSE glucose + glucose
                      1. SUCROSE fructose + glucose
                        1. LACTOSE galactose + glucose
                        2. Polysaccharides
                          1. GLYCOGEN
                            1. storage in animals
                              1. very compact
                                1. chain of alpha glucose joined by 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
                                  1. branched
                                    1. fast at hydrolysis to form glucose for respiration
                                2. CELLULOSE
                                  1. plant cell walls
                                    1. extremely strong
                                      1. microfibrils - chains of cellulose held together by hydrogen bonds
                                    2. long unbranched beta glucose chain joined with beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds
                                    3. STARCH
                                      1. storage in plants
                                        1. AMYLOPECTIN
                                          1. branched
                                            1. easily hydrolysed to provide glucose for respiration
                                            2. glucoses joined by alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds and branches of alpha 1,6 glycosidic bonds
                                            3. stains deep blue in iodine
                                              1. AMYLOSE
                                                1. glucoses joined by alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds
                                                  1. forms alpha glucose helix
                                                    1. 300 glucoses per helix and 6 per turn
                                                      1. very compact
                                                  2. all insoluble
                                                    1. polymer
                                                    2. HYDROLYSIS & CONDENSATION
                                                      1. Splitting apart by putting in water
                                                        1. 'Gluing' together, water being a by-product
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