In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine expanded the principles of the Truman Doctrine by extending Middle East military assistance in order to
offset communist influence in the region
combat anti-American terrorist threats
force the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to end its oil embargo
defend Israel against Arab invasions
“. . . Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. . . .”
— President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961
This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of
President John F. Kennedy supported the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba as an effort to
remove a communist dictator from power
stop the flow of illegal drugs to the United States
support Fidel Castro’s efforts for reform
rescue hostages held by Cuban freedom fighters
he Cuban missile crisis (1962) influenced President John F. Kennedy’s decision to
negotiate the limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union
reduce the nation’s commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
forbid Americans to trade with and travel to Latin America
send Peace Corps volunteers to aid developing countries
Base your answer to the question on the cartoon to the left and on your knowledge of social studies.
What is the main idea of this 1945 cartoon?
The world community needs to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
Korea’s development of atomic bombs has threatened world peace.
The Treaty of Versailles was successful in preventing World War II.
Germany should be criticized for using atomic bombs.
“The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments. “They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. . . .”
— Preamble to the North Atlantic Treaty, 1949 This statement shows the commitment of the United States to the principle of
McCarthyism in the early 1950s resulted from
new commitments to civil rights for African Americans
opposition to the Marshall Plan
charges that Communists had infiltrated the United States government
increase public support for labor unions
Base your answer to the question on the photograph to the left and on your knowledge of social studies.
The protestors in the photograph are expressing their hatred for
Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons.
The nation had become the only nuclear superpower.
Much fear was created by the Cold War.
Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack.
President Richard Nixon supported the policy of détente as a way to
reduce tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union
introduce democratic elections to communist nations
encourage satellite nations to break their ties with the Soviet Union
undermine Soviet influence among nonaligned countries in Africa and Asia
“I think it will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing the other, not playing one against the other, an even balance.”
— Richard Nixon, 1972 President Nixon put this idea into practice by
expanding economic relations with communist nations
abandoning his policy of détente
declaring an end to the Korean War
ending collective security agreements
The experiences of African Americans serving in the military forces during World War II influenced their postwar decision to
renew support for the principle of separate but equal
join the armed forces in record numbers
increase efforts to end racial discrimination
move back to the rural south
In 1948, President Harry Truman showed his support for civil rights by issuing an executive order to
end the immigration quota system
assure equal status for women in military service
ban racial segregation in the military
guarantee jobs for Native American Indians
“We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . . .”
— Chief Justice Earl Warren, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
This quotation illustrates the Supreme Court’s power to
uphold previous decisions
overrule state laws
check the powers of the executive branch
provide for educational funding
In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to
protect civil rights marchers
help African Americans register to vote
enforce a Supreme Court decision to desegregate public schools
end race riots resulting from a bus boycott
Which strategy did African-American students use when they refused to leave a “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960?
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed in an effort to correct
racial and gender discrimination
limitations on freedom of speech
unfair immigration quotas
segregation in the armed forces
During the civil rights movement of the 1960s, activities of the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) illustrated that
all civil rights groups use the same tactics
different approaches can be used to achieve a common goal
organizational differences usually lead to failure
violence is the best tool for achieving social change
Base your answer to the question on excerpts from the song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social studies.
Lyric: . . . Father, father
We don’t need to escalate
You see, war is not the answer
For only love can conquer hate
You know we’ve got to find a way
To bring some lovin’ here today. . .
— “What’s Going On,” Al Cleveland, Marvin Gaye, Renaldo Benson, 1971
Which conclusion is most clearly supported by an examination of these song lyrics?
In the 1960s and early 1970s, Americans shared common views on foreign policy.
Social conflict existed over war and civil rights in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The music of the 1960s and early 1970s supported government policies.
Most songwriters of the 1960s and early 1970s used their music to advocate violent revolution.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan was an influential book in the 1960s because it
helped strengthen family values
led directly to the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment
energized a new women’s rights movement
reinforced the importance of women’s traditional roles
One similarity between the actions of Samuel Gompers and Cesar Chavez is that both leaders
organized workers for better conditions
relied on the use of force to gain minority rights
advocated federal regulation of railroad rates
worked to improve consumer product safety
Rachel Carson and Ralph Nader are similar to the muckrakers of the Progressive Era because they have
advocated a total change in the structure of government
attempted to expose societal problems
failed to influence public opinion
supported anti-American activities
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair and Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader were both intended to
publicize the growing violence in American society
suggest that a poor person could get rich with hard work
encourage immigration reform
make the public aware of the poor quality of certain products
United States involvement in the Vietnam War was based in part on a desire to
prevent renewed Japanese expansionism in the Pacific
assure access to an adequate supply of oil from the Middle East
contain communism in Southeast Asia
protect American business interests in China
In the 1950s, the domino theory was used by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to justify
sending federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas
United States involvement in Vietnam
joining the United Nations
opposing Britain and France in the Suez Canal crisis
“I believe that our young people [18–20 years old] possess a great social conscience, are perplexed by the injustices which exist in the world and are anxious to rectify [correct] these ills.” — Senator Jennings Randolph, 1971, The New York Times
Those who favor this point of view would likely have supported
a constitutional amendment extending voting rights
a presidential decision to raise speed limits
a Supreme Court ruling to reverse desegregation
a law passed by Congress to increase Social Security benefits
The war in Vietnam led Congress to pass the War Powers Act of 1973 in order to
affirm United States support for the United Nations
strengthen the policy of détente
increase United States participation in international peacekeeping operations
assert the role of Congress in the commitment of troops overseas
Base your answer to the question on the cartoon to the left and on your knowledge of social studies.
Which event of the 1950s most likely led to the publication of this cartoon?
The United States was defeated in the Vietnam War.
American students scored low on tests in math and science.
The immediate impact of the 1957 launch of Sputnik I was that it
forced the United States to find new sources of fuel
focused attention on the need to regulate the uses of outer space
heightened the space race as a form of Cold War competition
ended the period of peaceful coexistence between the United States and the Soviet Union
“. . . We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. . . .”
— President John F. Kennedy, speech at Rice University, September 12, 1962
The main purpose of this speech was to win public support for
establishing a missile defense system on the Moon
cooperating with communist countries in exploring space
surpassing the Soviet Union in the space race
controlling the spread of nuclear weapons
“. . . My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. . . .”
— John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961
To implement the idea expressed in this statement, President Kennedy supported the
creation of the Marshall Plan
formation of the Peace Corps
removal of United States troops from Korea
establishment of the South East Asia Treaty Organization
A major goal of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program was to
control economic inflation
end poverty in the United States
repeal several New Deal social programs
return responsibility for welfare programs to the states
In 1965, Congress established Medicare to
provide health care to the elderly
assist foreign nations with their health problems
grant scholarships to medical students
establish universal health care
Which statement best describes an impact of the Watergate scandal on American society?
The modern environmental movement began.
Public trust in government declined.
Voter turnout in elections increased.
An economic recession ended.
The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States
has unlimited use of the veto power
is protected from unfair media criticism
may not be convicted of a crime
is not above the law
The beginning of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe is most closely associated with the
fall of the Berlin Wall
admission of Warsaw Pact nations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Yugoslavia
formation of the European Union
Base your answer to the question on the chart to the left and on your knowledge of social studies.
The changes shown on the chart most clearly reflect the