El nino/la nina and a normal year


A levels Geography Quiz on El nino/la nina and a normal year , created by istarinmcvicar on 28/12/2013.
Quiz by istarinmcvicar, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by istarinmcvicar almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Question 1

In a normal year....
  • Trade winds blow towards the equator and the warmer water of the western pacific.
  • The trade winds patterns are disrupted
  • Here the warmer water heats the air above causing convectional uplift, creatng low pressure weather conditions and rainfall over south east asia
  • In the East Pacific off the coast of Peru, the conditions are dry as the air returns and sinks here, creating the walker loop.
  • The trade winds either die or blow in the opposite direction
  • The pressure of the trade winds results in sea levels in Australasia being 50cm higher than in peru and sea temps 8C higher
  • The air movement also enables the winds to pull up water along the east coast of south america
  • the air circulation loop is reversed
  • On the east coast of south america there is a shallow warm upper layer overlying the deep cold layer of the ocean the boundary between these layers is the thermocline
  • The thermocline causes an upwelling of cold water bringing nutrients from the ocean bottom and producing optimum fishing conditions off the coast of peru

Question 2

Facts about el nino
  • Trade winds in the western pacific die or blow in the opposite direction
  • it's like an exxagerated normal year
  • the water that is normally piled up in the west moves back to the east so that the sea level on the peruvian coast rises 30m and conditions are calmer across the whole pacific ocean.
  • The air circulation loop is reversed so that air sinks in the western pacific bringing drought to countries in that region
  • extremely strong trade winds
  • Air rises in the eastern pacific causing convectional rainfall- sometimes flooding in coastal areas in south america
  • The change in location of air distorts the jet streams causing world wide teleconnections

Question 3

facts about la nina
  • An exaggerated normal year with a very strong walker loop
  • There are extremely strong trade winds pushing warmer water westwards and raising the sea level by up to a meter higher in indonesia and the phillipines
  • causes landslides in south america
  • Deep low pressure develops over south east asia causing heavy rain on account of the pacific there is a strong upwelling of cold water off the coast of peru
  • The higher than average pressure that occurs heer causes severe drought in the semi-arid areas of peru and northern chile
  • heavy rainfall in europe and flooding
  • The see sawing of atmospheric pressure between the easterm pacific and the indo australian area is called the southern oscillation

Question 4

The effects of el nino on the west and east.
  • Drought in indonesia, australia and malaysia - west
  • many people die of extreme heat caused =east
  • mild winters in n.usa and w.canada -west
  • demise of pevurian fish catches - east
  • reduced hurricane season -west
  • increased rain in southern usa states
  • Increased galapago iguana mortality rate -west
  • lots of hurricanes in n america - west
  • heavy rainfall in europe in the spring causing flooding-east
  • high rain in s america leading to landslides in the andes - east
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