PSY4270

Description

Quiz on PSY4270, created by Rachael Martin on 05/11/2022.
Rachael Martin
Quiz by Rachael Martin, updated more than 1 year ago
Rachael Martin
Created by Rachael Martin over 1 year ago
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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Sally has developed an intervention to support people who have recently experienced a stroke. The intervention focuses on helping these people improve their impulsivity. What area of practice would this intervention likely fall under?
Answer
  • Clinical
  • Forensic
  • Health
  • Neuropsychology

Question 2

Question
In which part of the assessment process would you assess your suitability to manage the client and their presenting problems?
Answer
  • Referral
  • Intake
  • First session
  • After assessment

Question 3

Question
Greg is pretty certain that one of his clients has schizophrenia. To confirm this, he administers two different measures of schizophrenia (PANSS & SAPS). This is an example of multiple tests being
Answer
  • Additive
  • Confirmatory
  • Congruent
  • Complementary

Question 4

Question
Sarah has a client who is experiencing general issues in their cognitive functioning. She decides that she will administer two different scales from the WAIS to get a better idea of where the specific deficits may lie. This is an example of multiple tests being
Answer
  • Additive
  • Confirmatory
  • Congruent
  • Complementary

Question 5

Question
Lucy is a 14-year-old girl who has been brought in for her first psychology appointment. During the session, she tells the psychologist that she has not been eating at all, and that she has been hallucinating severely. However, when the psychologist talks to Lucy's parents, they note no perceptual disturbances, and say that she eats 3 meals per day. Assuming the parents are telling the truth, what is this an example of?
Answer
  • Incongruence
  • Deception
  • Malingering
  • Inter-rater reliability

Question 6

Question
Ella administers two tests to her client. One measures social anxiety symptoms, and the other measures avoidance behaviours. She finds that the two measures are highly correlated with each other. This is an example of
Answer
  • Convergent validity
  • Convergent reliability
  • Divergent validity
  • Divergent reliability

Question 7

Question
Which of the following is NOT a consideration when working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients?
Answer
  • Ensure relevant cultural training before assessment
  • Document limitations of protocol for working in this population
  • Recognise and document the impact of language & non-verbal communication
  • Ensure that labels are used when interpreting results to improve clarity

Question 8

Question
Kelly is developing a new measure for BPD symptoms. This measure is an interview, and has no prescribed structure or questions, but it covers the key domains of BPD. What is a limitation of this type of measure overall?
Answer
  • Time-consuming
  • Costly
  • Does not answer differential diagnosis questions
  • Vulnerable to interviewer bias

Question 9

Question
Debbie asks her client to rate their sleep quality on a scale from 1 to 10. What type of measure is this?
Answer
  • Structured interview
  • Semi-structured interview
  • Spoken questionnaire
  • Subjective unit of distress

Question 10

Question
In which stage of the clinical interview process would you provide follow up contacts, acknowledge the distress of the client, and check if anything important was missed?
Answer
  • Prior to the interview
  • Starting the interview
  • Ending the interview
  • Middle of the interview

Question 11

Question
Mel has a client with anxiety, who is saying that she is worried that everyone will laugh at her for a scab she has on her face. Mel asks her client, 'Would you laugh at your friend if you saw they had a scab on their face?' and the client says 'Well, no that would just be mean'. Mel points out this discrepancy to her client, to which she concedes that maybe her thought is irrational. This is an example of which face to face interview skill?
Answer
  • Active listening
  • Questioning
  • Confrontation
  • Clarification

Question 12

Question
Which interview skill is typically avoided, but can be therapeutic in certain settings?
Answer
  • Humour
  • Self-disclosure
  • Containment
  • Confrontation

Question 13

Question
Laura is conducting an MSE and asks her client, 'Say you wanted to buy a car, how would you do that?'. Which section of the MSE is she assessing with this question?
Answer
  • Thought content
  • Thought form
  • Cognition
  • Judgement

Question 14

Question
Laura is conducting an MSE. She asks her client 'What do you do for work?' and the client responds with 'My favourite food is pasta'. This is an example of
Answer
  • Tangentiality
  • Flight of ideas
  • Derailment
  • Circumstantial thinking

Question 15

Question
Which of the following is NOT a limitation of the MSE?
Answer
  • Lack of standardisation
  • Not sensitive to cultural issues
  • Adopts a spectrum model
  • Limited by time

Question 16

Question
Which of the following mental illnesses is generally the most common?
Answer
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • PTSD
  • Anorexia
  • Anxiety

Question 17

Question
Which of the following is NOT a goal of assessment in psychopathology?
Answer
  • To trial a therapy technique in a clinical trial
  • Screening for a psych referral in a GP
  • Determining severity during intake
  • Forming a diagnosis

Question 18

Question
Lola has slow, impoverished speech, sad and teary affect, poor concentration, anhedonia, and recurrent thoughts of death. Which assessment measure would you use to assess her presenting complaint?
Answer
  • Structured clinical interview for DSMV (module A)
  • Structured clinical interview for DSMV (module B)
  • DASS
  • Hamilton scale

Question 19

Question
Jocelyn has a client presenting with a wide array of psychopathology. She wants to administer a quick measure to detect possible symptoms for further inquiry. Which measure should she use?
Answer
  • Cross-cutting symptom measure, level 1
  • Cross-cutting symptom measure, level 2
  • Structured clinical interview for DSMV (module A)
  • Structured clinical interview for DSMV (module B)

Question 20

Question
Poppy is a 17 year old girl who has been seeing a psychologist for assessment. Poppy's psychologist has come to the conclusion that she has BPD. What is a potential issue in telling Poppy this diagnosis?
Answer
  • She may be excluded from psychological services
  • She may feel more understood
  • She may join a support group
  • She may base her whole identity around her diagnosis

Question 21

Question
The sense of who you are in the past and the future is termed
Answer
  • Autonoetic awareness
  • Agnosia
  • Aphraxic awareness
  • Soraintisis

Question 22

Question
The current view of neuropsychology adopts a(n) ______ of the brain
Answer
  • Systems view
  • Individual view
  • Biomedical model
  • Biopsychosocial model

Question 23

Question
What was the focus of neuropsychology in the 1960s & 1970s?
Answer
  • Localising lesions to certain areas and forming diagnosis
  • Cognitive and behavioural expressions of brain damage and disease
  • Finding a cure for shell-shock, battle fatigue, and PTSD after WWII
  • Quantitative data and devising a systematic way of observing

Question 24

Question
Ingrid has been told that she should not only look at the score her clients get on assessment measures, but also the way in which they got to that score. This is an example of a(n)
Answer
  • Process approach
  • Standard battery approach
  • Outcome approach
  • Standardised approach

Question 25

Question
Attention, executive function, and psychomotor speed are all examples of
Answer
  • General aspects of function
  • Specific cognitive domains
  • Background of cognition
  • Neuropsychiatric decline

Question 26

Question
Which of the following describes the main outcome that neuropsychology assessment focuses on (in the context of memory impairment)?
Answer
  • Asking how a client's memory is, both generally and in specific situations
  • Asking a client's parent/friend how their memory is (e.g., how is your son's memory?)
  • Observing the client's memory skills as a clinician and noting this down
  • Understanding the client's point of view on their memory impairment, and the impact that common views about memory may have on the complaint

Question 27

Question
Relating to the previous question, what is the name given to the outcome most focussed on in neuropsychology assessment?
Answer
  • Patient-reported outcomes
  • Clinician-reported outcomes
  • Observer-reported outcomes
  • Performance-based outcomes

Question 28

Question
Polly is told a story and then is asked to recall it to the examiner. What is this measure testing?
Answer
  • Verbal memory
  • Executive functioning
  • Awareness of field
  • Attention

Question 29

Question
Which of the following is NOT typically found in a neuropsychological report?
Answer
  • Diagnostic impressions
  • Record of observations
  • Synthesis of results
  • Medication recommendations

Question 30

Question
Hannah cannot prescribe medication, studies changes in thinking and behaviour from brain dysfunction, and is regulated by AHPRA. Which of the following describes Hannah's profession?
Answer
  • Neuropsychologist
  • Neuropsychiatrist
  • Behavioural therapist
  • Clinical psychologist

Question 31

Question
What neuropsychiatric symptom is most common in Huntington's disease?
Answer
  • Depression
  • Disinhibition
  • Behavioural inflexibility
  • Stumbling and clumsiness

Question 32

Question
Kris has a client who has recently been in a car accident and damaged their thalamus. Following this damage, Kris' client has been experiencing memory deficits similar to what is observed when the hippocampus is damaged. This is an example of
Answer
  • Frontal lobe syndrome
  • Amnesia
  • Retrograde amnesia
  • Anterograde amnesia

Question 33

Question
Liz is a university student who recently experienced a transient ischaemic attack (i.e., miniature stroke). Following the stroke, Liz has been unable to manipulate information in her mind, and performs poorly on the digit span subtest of the WAIS. Which structure is likely damaged in Liz?
Answer
  • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • Ventromedial cortex
  • Orbitofrontal cortex
  • Parietal lobe

Question 34

Question
The current view of neuropsychiatry emphasises that behaviours are implemented in [blank_start]brain circuitry[blank_end], not brain regions.
Answer
  • brain circuitry

Question 35

Question
Bella is a neuropsychiatrist who has just received a referral for a new client. This client is experiencing neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with frontal syndrome. If Bella wants to get a rich account of frequency for a small number of frontal syndrome symptoms, she should use the _______. However, if she wants to get information on 12 symptoms in terms of severity and frequency, she should use the _____.
Answer
  • Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale; UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  • UCLA Neuropsychiatric Inventory; Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale
  • Milner Behavioural Scale; Yale Neuropsychiatric Assessment
  • Yale Neuropsychiatric Assessment; Milner Behavioural Scale

Question 36

Question
Kiki is 55 and has been experiencing early-onset cognitive decline. She is in a loving relationship which is mostly healthy and stable. However, 1 year ago, Kiki got into an argument with her wife and threw a plate at her. This behaviour was described as 'very uncharacteristic' by both Kiki and her wife, and has not occurred again since. When Kiki and her wife came in for neuropsychiatric assessment, the clinician only administered measures that asked about Kiki's behaviour within the last 6 months, hence this incident was not raised. This is an example of
Answer
  • Severity and frequency
  • Negative symptom assessment
  • Sampling frequency
  • Rater issues

Question 37

Question
Which treatment is typically used for the neuropsychiatric symptom of apathy?
Answer
  • Neuroleptics
  • Behavioural and family-based treatments
  • SRIs
  • No treatment

Question 38

Question
Bo wants to measure her client's difficulty with awareness of emotions, clearly understanding emotions, accepting emotions, impulsivity, and ability to engage in goal-directed behaviours. Which of the following scales would be useful in doing this?
Answer
  • Difficulties in emotion regulation scale
  • Conner's behaviour rating scale
  • Psychoeducational profile 3
  • Vineland-3

Question 39

Question
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of mindfulness?
Answer
  • We are not capable of developing sustained attention
  • Awareness makes life richer and more vivid
  • Mindfulness gives rise to veridically of perceptions
  • People generally operate on auto pilot

Question 40

Question
Peggy is mowing their lawn and finds themselves worrying about a job presentation that they have to do later that week. Peggy catches themselves doing this, and brings themselves back to the present moment. This is an example of
Answer
  • Openness
  • Equanimity
  • Formal mindfulness
  • Informal mindfulness

Question 41

Question
Which of the following is TRUE regarding mindfulness-based interventions?
Answer
  • They can prevent or stop depressive thoughts
  • They are as effective as CBT for sleep, anxiety, and depression
  • They can increase brain age by up to 7.5 years
  • They aren't useful in the context of reducing relapse

Question 42

Question
Recent studies have found that the relaxation response from mindfulness elicits specific gene expression changes in short and long-term practitioners, which may lead to long-term physiological effects. This is an example of
Answer
  • Epigenetics
  • Allostatic load
  • Open-monitoring
  • Focused attention

Question 43

Question
Which mode of mindfulness meditation promotes the generation of creative ideas?
Answer
  • Open-monitoring
  • Focused attention
  • Informal mindfulness
  • Formal mindfulness

Question 44

Question
Billy has been a psychologist for 50 years, and has been seeing a lot of support for mindfulness in both academia and commercial media. Despite this, Billy still thinks that mindfulness is a waste of time and is ineffective. What is this an example of?
Answer
  • Anchoring bias
  • Confirmation bias
  • Heuristic bias
  • Stereotyping

Question 45

Question
A psychologist that figures out the concern for the child and their well-being, and measures them against typical development milestones, likely works in the field of
Answer
  • Education & development
  • Forensic
  • Neuropsychology
  • Clinical

Question 46

Question
Tony is a 16-year-old boy who has a diagnosed intellectual disability. Lately, Tony has been experiencing significant periods of low mood, anhedonia, and loss of pleasure, and subsequently is isolating himself socially, which is uncharacteristic. When Tony's mother took him to see his psychologist, they simply said 'this is a usual part of intellectual disability, don't worry about it'. What has happened here?
Answer
  • Diagnostic overshadowing
  • Tony is experiencing adolescent symptoms of ID
  • Tony has autism, not ID
  • Developmental surveillance

Question 47

Question
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding ASD & ADHD?
Answer
  • They could not co-occur in the DSMIV
  • They both have a similar global prevalence
  • Echolalia can only occur in ADHD, not ASD
  • The SCAS is commonly used to differentiate ASD from ADHD

Question 48

Question
Daisy is a 6-year-old girl who has been brought in for psychological assessment. Upon assessment, it is apparent that Daisy is able to adequately express appropriate facial expressions and tone of voice, however her vocabulary is quite restricted. as she can only say a few phrases such as 'hungry', 'mum', and 'happy'. When Daisy is told to 'put the green block on top of the red block' she does so without issue. What disorder best fits Daisy's description?
Answer
  • Dyspraxia
  • Pragmatic language difficulty
  • Disordered expressive language
  • Intellectual disability

Question 49

Question
Caterina is a 21-month-old baby who has been brought in for a language assessment. The psychologist notes that Caterina enjoys peekaboo, can babble and say single words, communicates mainly through gestures, cannot say words yet, and responds to requests. She cannot point to pictures of body parts when asked, and does not know letter-sound associations. Two questions: a) What age range best fits this language ability? and b) Is Caterina's language ability typical for her age?
Answer
  • 12 to 24 months; Yes
  • 6 to 12 months; No
  • 4 to 5 years; No
  • 4 to 6 months; No

Question 50

Question
If you wanted to conduct a cognitive assessment in a child aged 6 years and 7 months, which tool would you use?
Answer
  • WPPSI-IV
  • WISC-V
  • WAIS-IV
  • Either the WPPSI or the WISC

Question 51

Question
Which of the following scales is a standardised measure of adaptive behaviour that can be used in children?
Answer
  • PEP-3
  • Vineland-3
  • Child behaviour checklist
  • All of the options are correct

Question 52

Question
A child who can let their parent know when they need to use the toilet and is able to discriminate between urination and bowel movements is likely
Answer
  • 1 year old
  • 1.5 years old
  • 2 years old
  • 2.5 years old

Question 53

Question
Franny is a 7-year-old girl who has been brought in by her foster parents for psychological assessment. Franny's foster parents are concerned that she has significant language delays and social difficulties. What is something that we would need to consider when assessing Franny?
Answer
  • Neglect and childhood trauma
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Specific language disorder
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Question 54

Question
At what age does object permanence typically occur?
Answer
  • 6 months
  • 9 months
  • 12 months
  • 2 years

Question 55

Question
Josie is a child who feels remorse, experiences nightmares and bedtime fears, is incapable of lying, and recently has been playing 'chef' where she completes short sequences of activity such as whisking and then putting her bowl in a pretend oven, which her parents think has been happening because they have all recently been watching Masterchef together. How old is Josie?
Answer
  • 2 years
  • 3 years
  • 4 years
  • 5 years

Question 56

Question
Robert is 17 years and 7 months and has recently completed a WAIS assessment. His psychologist is scoring the WAIS, and uses the scoring manual to convert Robert's raw scores into standardised scores and percentiles. His psychologist ensures to note the 95% confidence intervals and arrives at a final raw score of 46 for verbal comprehension, 21 for working memory, 44 for perceptual reasoning index, and 35 for processing speed. He then calculates a full-scale IQ, and accordingly interprets this according to the mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15. What mistake has Robert's psychologist made in these calculations?
Answer
  • The mean is 110, not 100
  • The WAIS uses 90% confidence intervals, not 95%
  • The FSIQ is uninterpretable and should not be calculated
  • Robert is too young for the WAIS and should have completed the WISC

Question 57

Question
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the WAIS-IV?
Answer
  • Tells us about focal deficits and general level of cognitive functioning in everyday life
  • It is the most popular measure of intelligence testing
  • If there is more than 5 points difference within the raw scores of indices, then they are uninterpretable
  • There are 10 subtests which contribute to the final full-scale IQ

Question 58

Question
In educational and developmental psychology, diagnosis should lead to
Answer
  • assessment
  • treatment
  • exclusion
  • comorbidity

Question 59

Question
In developmental disorders, there are many interventions available specifically for people with ______, but not as many for people with ______.
Answer
  • ASD; ADHD
  • ADHD; ASD
  • Depression; anxiety
  • Anxiety; depression

Question 60

Question
What is the first line of treatment for ADHD?
Answer
  • ABA therapy
  • Medication
  • Social skills programs
  • Sensory diets

Question 61

Question
Harry was diagnosed with ADHD as a young child, and is now entering high school. He has recently been feeling very anxious, and is constantly worrying about what other people think of him. His parents brought him to you for psychological assessment, and you came to the conclusion that Harry has anxiety. What is an important aspect of Harry's treatment plan?
Answer
  • Psychoeducation
  • PEERs program
  • Westmead feelings program
  • Psychodynamic therapy

Question 62

Question
Fifi has developed a new intervention for children to improve their social skills. The intervention begins by figuring out the child's goal, and then gets them to practice their social skills in natural environments, involving many repetitions and scaffolded practice. This intervention is known as a _____, and according to Novak & Honan, is likely to be ______.
Answer
  • Top-down approach; ineffective
  • Top-down approach; effective
  • Bottom-up approach; ineffective
  • Bottom-up approach; effective

Question 63

Question
Which broad class of interventions are most important in children aged 0 to 6 years (i.e., preschool age)?
Answer
  • Family
  • Child
  • Community
  • Cognitive behavioural

Question 64

Question
Which of the following is a controversial, intensive behaviour therapy, that is labelled by the ASD community as abusive and unethical?
Answer
  • ABA therapy
  • PEERs
  • Secret agent society
  • Animal therapy

Question 65

Question
What is often stressed in the context of neurodevelopmental disorders and is important to reduce the negative developmental impacts of preschool, childhood, and adulthood problems?
Answer
  • Early intervention
  • Social skills training
  • Medication
  • Holistic intervention

Question 66

Question
A forensic psychologist is assessing a new client of theirs for recidivism, and notes that they are 23, male, vegetarian, impulsive, and currently intoxicated. Which of these factors would be assessed through an actuarial tool?
Answer
  • Male and 23
  • Vegetarian
  • Impulsivity and current intoxication
  • None of these would be assessed through actuarial tools as they are not associated with increased recidivism.

Question 67

Question
A forensic assessment tool that gives more nuanced information, assesses dynamic risk factors, considers individual people and characteristics, and takes 2 to 3 hours to complete, is likely to be a(n)
Answer
  • Actuarial tool
  • Structured professional judgement tool
  • Comprehensive forensic evaluation tool
  • Case formulation tool

Question 68

Question
Kelsey has recently been arrested for the third time, after stealing from Sephora. She has been stealing from Sephora for many years now, despite previous punishment. When asked about why she continues to steal from Sephora, Kelsey says she doesn't have enough money to buy makeup, and that she still deserves to look nice. This lack of money is an example of a
Answer
  • Clinical perpetuating factor
  • Forensic perpetuating factor
  • Clinical precipitating factor
  • Forensic precipitating factor

Question 69

Question
The focus of _______ is on addressing offence-specific behaviour and reducing reoffending, with the ultimate aim of reintegration.
Answer
  • forensic interventions
  • forensic assessments
  • clinical interventions
  • clinical assessments

Question 70

Question
In the 1960s and 1970s, rehabilitation programs for people who had offended fell out of favour, with most people today still thinking that those in forensic settings are treatment resistant. The w8 lecture refers to this as
Answer
  • The 'nothing works' mentality
  • The discrimination against offenders
  • The 'war against crime'
  • The 'recidivism crisis'

Question 71

Question
Which RNR principle surrounds directing intensive services to higher-risk offenders and minimising services to low-risk offenders?
Answer
  • Risk principle
  • Needs principle
  • Responsivity principle
  • Rehabilitation principle

Question 72

Question
Marshall and colleagues found in their 2002 paper that a(n) ________ approach is generally detrimental to treating recidivism in forensic contexts
Answer
  • punitive
  • firm but supportive challenging
  • group-led
  • individual

Question 73

Question
Henwood and colleagues' 2015 paper found that _______ appeared to be effective in reducing the risk of violent recidivism, and that moderate-intensity plans were more effective than _____ programs for violence reduction.
Answer
  • CBT anger management programs; low-intensity
  • CBT anger management programs; high-intensity
  • Group-led behavioural programs; low-intensity
  • Group-led behavioural programs; high-intensity

Question 74

Question
Which of the following is true about the law?
Answer
  • Stresses certainty
  • Emphasises determinism
  • Academic
  • Group focused

Question 75

Question
I am running late for a class on campus and decide to litter as I am stressed that I won't make it to class on time if I walk all the way to the bin. In this example, my littering is ______, and my stressed feelings are ______.
Answer
  • Covert; overt
  • Overt; covert
  • Conscious; unconscious
  • Unconscious; conscious

Question 76

Question
The assumption of behaviour and behavioural interventions that stresses the need to rule out simple, logical explanations before considering abstract, complex ones is called
Answer
  • Parsimony
  • Philosophic doubt
  • Lawful
  • Empirical

Question 77

Question
Which of the following is TRUE regarding behaviourism?
Answer
  • Thoughts and feelings are not accounted for
  • Behaviourism is deterministic
  • Dispositions do not matter
  • There is an idiographic focus

Question 78

Question
Kim is currently studying at law school, and is doing really well on her assessments. However, she consistently stresses as she believes that she is 'too dumb for law' and thinks that she will fail the bar. This is an example of what type of complex behaviour?
Answer
  • Cognitive-verbal
  • Physiological-affective
  • Overt-motor
  • Inappropriate behaviour

Question 79

Question
Kai is a 16-year-old boy who spends most of his time playing Minecraft, to the point where he neglects his school work. This behaviour could be described as a typical example of adolescent ____
Answer
  • Behavioural deficiency
  • Behavioural excess
  • Inappropriate behaviour
  • None of these are correct, this behaviour is typically seen in children

Question 80

Question
Which of the following is NOT something that is necessary when choosing a target behaviour for assessment?
Answer
  • Must be observable and measurable in regard to frequency, intensity, and duration
  • Must produce positive reinforcement in the client's natural environment after treatment
  • Alternative behaviours must exist if the target behaviour is a problem behaviour
  • Must be covert

Question 81

Question
Kourtney is a nurse working in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit. On her night shifts, Kourtney is required to check in on the patients every 25 minutes to ensure that they are sleeping. What type of behavioural assessment is this?
Answer
  • Continuous recording
  • Interval recording
  • Permanent product recording
  • Momentary time sampling

Question 82

Question
Kourtney got fired from her job as a nurse and is now working in a factory that produces lip gloss. Her boss measures her productivity by counting how many units of lip gloss Kourtney successfully packages per shift. This is an example of
Answer
  • Continuous recording
  • Interval recording
  • Permanent product recording
  • Momentary time sampling

Question 83

Question
Gen is currently undergoing behavioural modification. Her psychologist is teaching her how to respond in specific contexts, such as when it is appropriate to swear (not in front of parents but ok for peers), when it is appropriate to eat with strict table manners (best for restaurants, strange in a home), and when it is appropriate to shake someone's hand (when meeting an acquaintance, not seeing a close friend). This is an example of
Answer
  • Stimulus discrimination
  • Stimulus generalisation
  • Continuous reinforcement
  • Variable ratio reinforcement

Question 84

Question
Anna is a recovering alcoholic. She has been attending alcoholics anonymous, and when she was 1 month sober she received a medallion. She then received a medallion for 6 months sober, 1 year sober, and hopes to receive the 5 year sobriety medallion next. This is an example of
Answer
  • Continuous reinforcement
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Fixed interval reinforcement
  • Variable interval reinforcement

Question 85

Question
Which behaviours are the easiest to extinguish?
Answer
  • Those which have been continuously reinforced
  • Those which have been partially reinforced
  • Those which have been overcorrected
  • Those which have been variably reinforced

Question 86

Question
Services in the clinical-scientist model must satisfy a number of requirements. Which of the following is NOT one of these requirements?
Answer
  • Exact description of service provided
  • Claimed benefits are stated explicitly and validated scientifically
  • Empirical efficacy is above 90%
  • Possible negative side effects that could outweigh benefits are ruled out empirically

Question 87

Question
Clara wants to measure the efficacy of DBT for her clients with ADHD. She is working with another researcher to do this, and they each take a different approach. Clara ensures that her clients do not have any comorbidities that may influence the efficacy of the therapy (e.g., BPD, ASD), and conducts the sessions in a special research clinic with better resources. Clara's colleague does not apply any of these constraints, and simply administers DBT to her current clients with ADHD in her imperfect clinic. Clara is engaging in a(n) _______, whereas her colleague is conducting a(n) _______.
Answer
  • Effectiveness trial; practice-based evidence
  • Practice-based evidence; effectiveness trial
  • RCT; practice-based research
  • Practice-based research; RCT

Question 88

Question
Hailey finds a new intervention for ASD which has a few cohort studies supporting its use. Which level of evidence is this intervention?
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

Question 89

Question
Graham is on the review board which grades interventions on their evidence base. He is currently reviewing a new sleep intervention from America, and determining whether its evidence-base is relevant to Australian hospitals and clinics. Which aspect of the body of evidence matrix is Graham currently assessing?
Answer
  • Evidence base
  • Generalisability
  • Clinical impact
  • Applicability

Question 90

Question
Nia is working at a new psychology clinic. They tell her that it is protocol to monitor clients' perceptions of the therapeutic alliance and compliance to interventions every 2 months. This is an example of
Answer
  • Routine outcome monitoring - outcomes
  • Routine outcome monitoring - process
  • Evidence based practice - effectiveness
  • Evidence based practice - key factors

Question 91

Question
Which therapy has level 1 evidence for most disorders?
Answer
  • CBT
  • Psychodynamic
  • DBT
  • Mindfulness

Question 92

Question
Which of the following is supported for use in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations?
Answer
  • Narrative therapy
  • EMDR
  • Psychoeducation
  • Family interventions

Question 93

Question
Which therapy proposes that dysfunctional thinking, which influences mood and behaviour, is common to all psychological disturbances?
Answer
  • CBT
  • Psychodynamic
  • DBT
  • ACT

Question 94

Question
Which of the following is TRUE regarding CBT?
Answer
  • It is the same for each client
  • It requires a sound therapeutic relationship
  • It challenges thoughts
  • It only focuses on the present

Question 95

Question
Which technique is used in CBT to go from automatic thoughts down to deeper cognitive beliefs?
Answer
  • Socratic quesitoning
  • Hot cognitions
  • Downward arrow
  • Self-monitoring

Question 96

Question
Khloe is running a fashion show and is worrying about what the audience thinks. Everyone in the audience is really into the show, however she spots one person in the audience who looks bored. She thinks, 'Oh no, my fashion show must be awful, I knew this was a bad idea.' What is this an example of?
Answer
  • Mind reading
  • Magnification and minimisation
  • Catastrophising
  • Polarised thinking

Question 97

Question
Ruby is currently in therapy and is discussing her relational difficulties. She tells her therapist that she has a hard time forming new relationships, because 'people are not trustworthy'. What level of cognition is this?
Answer
  • Automatic thought
  • Assumption
  • Rule
  • Core belief

Question 98

Question
Exploring aspects of the self that are to fully known is the essence of which therapy?
Answer
  • DBT
  • Psychodynamic
  • CBT
  • ACT

Question 99

Question
Raja has recently been missing her therapy sessions, as she is worried that her therapist will bring up the fact that she has not been eating. During her sessions, whenever this topic is brought up Raja quickly changes the topic. Raja's therapist is planning to focus on this in their next session. Which distinctive feature of the psychodynamic technique is this?
Answer
  • Focus on full range of affect and emotion
  • Discussion of past experience
  • Countertransference
  • Exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts

Question 100

Question
Everything the client brings to therapy such as their mood, what happened to them in the last week, and their openness, accounts for _______ of the therapeutic outcomes?
Answer
  • 40%
  • 30%
  • 15%
  • 86%

Question 101

Question
Which of the following is a common critique of the common factors model?
Answer
  • May deskill therapists
  • Reduces development of new interventions
  • Focuses too much on the therapeutic model
  • Incorporates too much deliberate practice

Question 102

Question
Which of the following is a direct measure of sleep?
Answer
  • Polysomnography
  • Actigraphy
  • Sleep diary and log
  • There is no direct measure

Question 103

Question
Julie wants to measure sleep quantity subjectively over a long period of time. She wants to be able to do this easily with a low cost, and doesn't care too much about the impact of compliance. Which measure is best for this?
Answer
  • None of these fit her description
  • Polysomnography
  • Actigraphy
  • Sleep diary and log

Question 104

Question
Hillary is conducting a sleep assessment using a range of measures including PSG, actigraphy, and sleep diary. Her client is a 7 year old boy with ADHD and she is measuring his wake time and total sleep time. When looking at the measures between PSG and actigraphy, which discrepancy is Hillary likely to find?
Answer
  • PSG overestimates his wake time and underestimates total sleep time
  • PSG underestimates his wake time and overestimates total sleep time
  • Actigraphy underestimates his wake time and overestimates total sleep time
  • Actigraphy overestimates his wake time and underestimates total sleep time

Question 105

Question
Which of the following is NOT a commonly presented sleep disorder?
Answer
  • Insomnia
  • Hypersomnolence
  • Narcolepsy
  • Circadian rhythm sleep wake disorder

Question 106

Question
Which sleep disorder is purely based on subjective complaints of sleep and involves difficulty with early awakenings, sleep maintenance, and non-restorative sleep?
Answer
  • Insomnia
  • Narcolepsy
  • Hypersomnolence
  • Circadian rhythm sleep wake disorder

Question 107

Question
According to the 3P model, which factors contribute to chronic but not acute insomnia?
Answer
  • Poor coping mechanisms exacerbating sleep problems
  • Biological predisposition to sleep disorders
  • Substance use
  • None of these are correct

Question 108

Question
Hamish is having difficulty initiating sleep and waking early, and complains of anxiety around bed time. He often sits in bed, worrying about how much time he has left to sleep, and thinking about how it will impact him the next day. Without knowing how long this has been going on for, which type of insomnia is Hamish likely experiencing?
Answer
  • You cannot tell without knowing the duration of the complaint
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Intermediate

Question 109

Question
To treat his insomnia, Hamish's therapist tells him to get up and read a book in the kitchen if he cannot get to sleep within 15 minutes of going to bed. This is called ______ and is a _________ intervention.
Answer
  • Stimulus control; first-wave
  • Stimulus control; second-wave
  • Sleep hygiene; first-wave
  • Sleep hygiene; second-wave

Question 110

Question
People with insomnia typically have __________ scores on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Questionnaire.
Answer
  • Higher
  • Lower
  • Intermediate
  • Variable

Question 111

Question
Hamish does this strategy, but tells his psychologist it isn't working. He says 'I try to read to make myself sleepy, I even make myself a tea to increase my sleepiness, but nothing works!' What part of the attention-intention-effort pathway does this behaviour belong to?
Answer
  • Attention
  • Intention
  • Effort
  • It belongs to all three

Question 112

Question
According to the metacognitive model, arousal which is caused by how one relates to cognitive activity of sleep is called
Answer
  • Primary arousal
  • Secondary arousal
  • Tertiary arousal
  • None of these options are correct

Question 113

Question
Jinny has recently been experiencing post-partum depression. As a result of this, she has been complaining of poor sleep quality and difficulty initiating sleep. What diagnosis best fits Jinny's complaints?
Answer
  • Primary insomnia
  • Secondary insomnia
  • Insomnia
  • Post-partum depression with insomnia features

Question 114

Question
A key aspect of the biopsychosocial model in health psychology is that it is
Answer
  • Bidirectional
  • Restricted
  • Category-based
  • Biologically-focused

Question 115

Question
Elena has been experiencing a significant amount of stress at work as she ha recently been promoted to a position in which she feels out of her depth. This prolonged stress means hat her HPA axis is constantly activated, and is modulating her blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. As a result, Elena has been getting sick very easily, and always seems to have a cold. This is an example of
Answer
  • Primary mediators
  • Secondary outcomes
  • The mind influencing the body
  • The body influencing the mind

Question 116

Question
fMRI studies have recently shown similar brain activity in people with anhedonia, and healthy controls injected with an endotoxin that increases inflammation. Supporting this, another study found that when participants were injected with the same inflammatory endotoxin, they experienced spikes in depressed mood and social disconnection. This is an example of
Answer
  • The mind influencing the body
  • The body influencing the mind
  • Primary mediators
  • Secondary outcomes

Question 117

Question
Which of the following aspects in a measure of depression would you NOT want to be included for use in people currently undergoing chemotherapy?
Answer
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low mood
  • Anhedonia
  • Suicidality

Question 118

Question
Which of the following health psychology assessment measures can be limited by a lack of appropriate training for the clinician, and limited generalisability to the natural environment?
Answer
  • Psychophysiological measures
  • Observation
  • Archival data
  • Psychometric instruments

Question 119

Question
A health psychologist wants to improve the amount of information they are able to collect during their clinical interview. They decide they want to understand more about client's current and past medications, and the side effects they experience from these, however they understand that it can be hard for clients to think of this on the spot. Which measure should they use to overcome this?
Answer
  • Structured clinical interview
  • Questionnaires mailed prior to apppointment
  • Broadband-general psychometric instruments
  • Archival data

Question 120

Question
Which of the following is NOT a commonly used intervention in health psychology?
Answer
  • Exercise
  • Mindfulness based stress reduction
  • DBT
  • Yoga

Question 121

Question
This measure is one of the most fundamental methods of assessment, can be unstructured or highly structured, and completed by the clinician or by the client themselves. It is limited by the subjectivity of the clinician, and if it is not integrated with other data sources. This measure is
Answer
  • Observation
  • Questionnaire
  • Clinical interview
  • Diary

Question 122

Question
Which of the following is an example of a Narrow focus - General psychometric instrument?
Answer
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory - 2
  • Millon Behavioural Medicine Diagnostic
  • Beck Depression Inventory II
  • Multidimensional Pain Inventory
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