Global History Regents Review Notes (Protestant Reformation)


Notes on the Protestant Reformation for the Global History Regents.
Stephen Lang
Note by Stephen Lang, updated more than 1 year ago
Stephen Lang
Created by Stephen Lang almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Page 1

Martin Luther

Against Church's corruption and worldliness

Wrote 95 Theses

Church called him to recant and give up his views

He denied, and was excommunicated and declared an outlaw

In Germany he was seen as a hero

Lutheran Church

Rejected Church doctrine that good deeds meant salvation

Bible was the sole source of rel truth

Denied Church authorities like the Pope, Church council, etc.

Rejected 5 of 7 sacraments because the Bible did not mention them

Banned indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints

Simplified mass rituals and emphasized sermons

Permitted Clergy to marry

95 Theses

Johann Tetzel (priest) offered indulgences to any Christian who contributed money to rebuilding the Cathedral of St. Peter

Claimed it would assure entry into heaven

Luther was angered by this

Drew 95 theses, arguments, against indulgences

Indulgences had no basis in Bible

Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)

Leader: Pope Paul III

To revive moral authority of Church and roll back Protestant tide

End corruption within papacy by appointing reformers to key posts

Council of Trent

Inquisition: court set up during Middle Ages, used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy

Prepared Index of Forbidden Books (books too immoral for Catholics, and mainly by Lutherans & Calvanists)

Jesuits: founded by Ignatious of Loyola

combat heresy and spread Catholic faith spiritual and moral discipline, rel training, and obedience to Church embarked on a crusade to spread Catholic faith Witch hunts

John Calvin (Calvinism)

Published Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536, advice on how to run a Prot Church

Preached predestination

Bible is the only source of rel truth

Two kings of people in the world - saints and sinners


The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation

Henry VIII, Act of Supremacy

At first, stood against Protestant revolt, awarded title “Defender of the faith” for a pamphlet her wrote denouncing Luther    

Did not have has not had a male heir after 18 years of marriage with Catherine of Aragon

Asked the pope to annul marriage to marry Anne Boleyn, hoping he would get a son Henry was refused since the pope did not want to offend HREmperor Charles V (Catherine’s nephew)

Henry waned revenge so he took over the Catholic Church through Parliament

Had a series of laws passed and took the English Church from the Pope's control

1534 - Act of Supremacy was passed which made Henry the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England

Those who refused the Act of Supremacy were executed for treason

Royal officials investigated convents and monasteries. Henry saw them as immoral and had them closed

Granted these lands confiscated to nobles and high ranked people

Though not a rel radical, kept most Catholic forms of worship

Elizabeth I

English throne passed to Elizabeth after Mary Tudor’s death

Made a compromise between Catholic & Protestant practices

Church of England preserved Catholic rituals & kept hierarchy of bishops and archbishops

Accepted Protestant doctrine, and allowed English to replace Latin in Church services

Catholicism Sect

Bible was the major source of rel truth, but not the only one

7 Sacraments


Good works and deeds meant salvation

Protestant Sect

Luther; Calvin - the Bible is the only source of truth

Anapbaptists - did not believe in infant baptism    

Peace of Augsburg

HREmperor Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into the Catholic church which created a war

The PoA allowed princes decide religion in their lands (Catholic or Lutheran)

Council of Trent

Reaffirmed traditional Catholic views

Good works and faith meant salvation

Bible was the major source of rel truth

Penalties for corruption among clergy

Established schools for a better educated clergy

Protestant Reformation

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