2. The spheres


physics (Module 8: Chemical systems) Note on 2. The spheres, created by mossrobyn on 11/10/2013.
Note by mossrobyn, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by mossrobyn almost 11 years ago

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The HydrosphereConsists of earths water.water essential for all life.Oceans cover more than 70% of earths surface.This large amount of water makes it possible for life to develop so successfully on earth.The Water CycleWater moves through the global systems and affects them all.***How the water cycle collects, purifies and distributes water in the hydrosphere through interaction with other global systems.***.

Interaction the water cycle has with the lithosphere Rainfalls on earths surface and dissolves salts and other chemicals  from soil.It washes soil particles from soil and water seeps into soil.soil is carried down rivers and fresh soil is dropped at bottom and banks of river when river slows down.Farmers rely on this fresh soil to plant their crops.Water can also grind down rocks and carve path through the earths surface.When water freezes it can split rocks and grind rocks down to soil.Liquid water has smoothed and sculpted the surface of our planet.

Interaction the water cycle has with the atmosphereWater evaporates from seas, dams and lakes as water vapor.Water vapor in air absorbs heat from sun.At cooler, higher levels water vapor condenses into water droplets forming clouds.White surface of clouds reflect heat keeping the surface of earth cool.When the water droplets become to heavy for clouds they fall to earth as rain, sleet or snow

Interaction the water cycle has with the BiosphereAs water falls to ground, it soaks into ground and becomes groundwater.This water is absorbed by roots of plants that hold soil in place and slows down surface runoff, preventing soil erosion.Plants release water back into atmosphere by transpiration.Animals do the same but be breathing.Animals and plants store water in their bodies for a time to transport food within their structures.Animals use water to excrete waste and to cool them down.The unique properties of water and its importance to the biospherePhysical/ Chemical properties                                                                                                                 Importance to the biosphere1. water exists as a liquid over a wide temperature range.                                                                         1. Average temp. on earth is 15 degrees Celsius, meaning water is found mostly in liquid phase.2. Liquid water changes temp. very slowly.                                                                                                 2. water heats up and cools slower than soil/rocks. This moderates earth temp. therefore                                                                                                                                                                           protecting living organisms from abrupt temp. changes.3. Liquid water is a good solvent                                                                                                                 3. Water carries nutrients through tissues of living organisms and flushes out waste products.4. Water expands when it freezes rater than contracting.                                                                           4. Ice floats in water because it has lower mass per volume then liquid.                                                                                                                                                                          without this property lakes and rivers will freeze from the bottom up, killing many forms of aquatic life                                                                                             

Human intervention in the water cycle1) Withdrawing large quantities of fresh water from lakes streams etc.2) Building dams that control the flow of rivers.3) Clearing vegetation => increases risk of flooding                                          speeds surface runoff                                          produces more soil erosion                                          reduces seepage of water to recharge groundwater supplies. 

The Hydrosphere

Water cycle and the lithosphere

water cycle and the atmosphere

Water cycle and the biosphere

Human intervention in the water cycle

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