English Basic Grammar


English Basic Grammar
Alessandra S.
Note by Alessandra S., updated more than 1 year ago
Alessandra S.
Created by Alessandra S. about 10 years ago

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Prepositions "On", "At", and "In" A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition. In the beginning stage of learning the language, you should try to identify a preposition when reading or listening in English and recognize its usage.  to the office at the desk on the table in an hour about myself A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object. Here are a few common prepositions and examples. On Used to express a surface of something: I put an egg on the kitchen table. The paper is on my desk. Used to specify days and dates: The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988. Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer: He is on the phone right now. She has been on the computer since this morning. My favorite movie will be on TV tonight. Used to indicate a part of the body: The stick hit me on my shoulder. He kissed me on my cheek. I wear a ring on my finger. Used to indicate the state of something: Everything in this store is on sale. The building is on fire. At Used to point out specific time: I will meet you at 12 p.m. The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m. Used to indicate a place: There is a party at the club house. There were hundreds of people at the park. We saw a baseball game at the stadium. Used to indicate an email address:Please email me at abc@defg.com.Used to indicate an activity: He laughed at my acting. I am good at drawing a portrait. In Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year: She always reads newspapers in the morning. In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks. The new semester will start in March. Used to indicate a location or place: She looked me directly in the eyes. I am currently staying in a hotel. My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California. Used to indicate a shape, color, or size: This painting is mostly in blue. The students stood in a circle. This jacket comes in four different sizes. Used to express while doing something: In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times. A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product. Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling: I believe in the next life. We are not interested in gambling.

Prepositions "Of", "To", and "For" Of Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with: The secret of this game is that you can’t ever win. The highlight of the show is at the end. The first page of the book describes the author’s profile. Don’t touch it. That’s the bag of my friend’s sister. I always dreamed of being rich and famous. Used to indicate reference: I got married in the summer of 2000. This is a picture of my family. I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase. Used to indicate an amount or number: I drank three cups of milk. A large number of people gathered to protest. I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days. He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment. To Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something: I am heading to the entrance of the building. The package was mailed to Mr. Kim yesterday. All of us went to the movie theater. Please send it back to me. Used to indicate a limit or an ending point: The snow was piled up to the roof. The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars. Used to indicate relationship: This letter is very important to your admission. My answer to your question is in this envelop. Do not respond to every little thing in your life. Used to indicate a time or a period: I work nine to six, Monday to Friday. It is now 10 to five. (In other words, it is 4:50.) For Used to indicate the use of something: This place is for exhibitions and shows. I baked a cake for your birthday. I put a note on the door for privacy. She has been studying hard for the final exam. Used to mean because of: I am so happy for you. We feel deeply sorry for your loss. For this reason, I’ve decided to quit this job. Used to indicate time or duration: He’s been famous for many decades. I attended the university for one year only. This is all I have for today.

Prepositions "With", "Over", and "By" With Used to indicate being together or being involved: I ordered a sandwich with a drink. He was with his friend when he saw me. She has been working with her sister at the nail shop. The manager will be with you shortly. Used to indicate "having": I met a guy with green eyes. Were you the one talking with an accent? People with a lot of money are not always happy. Used to indicate "using": I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me. This is the soup that I made with rice and barley. He cut my hair with his gold scissors. Used to indicate feeling: I am emailing you with my sincere apology. He came to the front stage with confidence. Used to indicate agreement or understanding: Are you with me? Yes, I am completely with you. She agrees with me. Over Used to indicate movement from one place to another: Come over to my house for dinner sometime. Could you roll over? They sent over a gift for his promotion. Used to indicate movement downward: The big tree fell over on the road. Can you bend over and get the dish for me? He pushed it over the edge. Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount: This amount is over our prediction. Kids twelve and over can watch this movie. The phone rang for over a minute. Used to indicate a period of time: I worked there over a year. She did not sleep there over this past month. By Used to indicate proximity: Can I sit by you? He was standing by me. The post office is by the bank. Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence: The microwave was fixed by the mechanic. The flowers were delivered by a postman. The branch office was closed by the head office. Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose: You can pass the exam by preparing for it. I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter. She finally broke the record by pure effort. Used to indicate a mean or method: Please send this package to Russia by airmail. I came here by subway.

Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns Count nouns Can be counted as one or more.pen, computer, bottle, spoon, desk, cup, television, chair, shoe, finger, flower, camera, stick, balloon, book, table, comb, etc.Take an s to form the plural.pens, computers, bottles, spoons, desks, cups, televisions, chairs, shoes, fingers, flowers, cameras, sticks, balloons, books, tables, combs, etc.Work with expressions such as (a few, few, many, some, every, each, these, and the number of).a few pens, a few computers, many bottles, some spoons, every desk, each cup, these televisions, the number of chairs, a few shoes, a few fingers, many flowers, some cameras, every stick, each balloon, these books, the number of tables, many combs, etc.Work with appropriate articles (a, an, or the).a pen, the computer, a bottle, the spoon, a desk, the cup, a television, the chair, a shoe, the finger, a flower, the camera, a stick, the balloon, a book, the table, a comb, etc.Do NOT work with much (for example, you would never say much pens or much computers). Non-count nouns Cannot be counted. They usually express a group or a type.water, wood, ice, air, oxygen, English, Spanish, traffic, furniture, milk, wine, sugar, rice, meat, flour, soccer, sunshine, etc.Generally cannot be pluralized.Work both with and without an article (a, an, or the), depending on the context of the sentence. Sugar is sweet. The sunshine is beautiful. I drink milk. He eats rice. We watch soccer together. The wood is burning. Work with expressions such as (some, any, enough, this, that, and much). We ate some rice and milk. I hope to see some sunshine today. This meat is good. She does not speak much Spanish. Do you see any traffic on the road? That wine is very old. Do NOT work with expressions such as (these, those, every, each, either, or neither).

Singular and Plural Nouns A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea.Usually, the first page of a grammar book tells you about nouns. Nouns give names of concrete or abstractthings in our lives. As babies learn "mom," "dad," or "milk" as their first word, nouns should be the first topicwhen you study a foreign language. For the plural form of most nouns, add s. bottle – bottles cup – cups pencil – pencils desk – desks sticker – stickers window – windows For nouns that end in ch, x, s, or s sounds, add es. box – boxes watch – watches moss – mosses bus – buses For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es. wolf – wolves wife – wives leaf – leaves life – lives Some nouns have different plural forms. child – children woman – women man – men mouse – mice goose – geese Nouns ending in vowels like y or o do not have definite rules. baby – babies toy – toys kidney – kidneys potato – potatoes memo – memos stereo – stereos A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms. sheep – sheep deer – deer series – series species – species

Preposition On-At-In

Preposition Of-To-For

Prepositions With-Over-By

Count Nouns and Non Count

Singular and Plural Nouns

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