Treatment and Punishment of Crime


A Level PY4 Psychology (Forensic Psychology) Mind Map on Treatment and Punishment of Crime, created by HeyThereIAmKyle on 17/05/2013.
Mind Map by HeyThereIAmKyle, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Created by Hayd23 about 11 years ago
Copied by HeyThereIAmKyle about 11 years ago

Resource summary

Treatment and Punishment of Crime
  1. Cognitive therapy
    1. Cognitive skills programmes are based on CBT
      1. aim to identify and correct cognitive deficits which lead to criminal behaviour
        1. first task - help offender recognise their cognitive deficits then help them change their thinking and behaviour through the acquisition of cognitive skills
          1. 2 programmes used by the prisons in England and Wales: Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) and Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R)
            1. R&R
              1. groups of 6 offenders attend sequential modules
                1. each session teaches sub-skills building on previous learning
                  1. based on premise that offenders are typically under-socialised, lacking values, attitudes, reasoning and social skills required fore appropriate social behaviour
                  2. modules cover areas such as: problem solving social skills, negotiation and critical reasoning
                2. ETS
                  1. 20 two-hour ETS groupwork sessions that are made compulsory
                    1. skills include learning to think before acting
                    2. group exercises and role play demonstrate the value of stopping and thinking to help with understaning the consequences
              2. Behavioural therapy
                1. Operant conditioning
                  1. Reinforcement
                    1. token economy
                      1. used to improve the behaviour of people in prison
                        1. behaviour of inmates can be changed by positively reinforcing desirable (non-aggressive) behaviour with tokens
                          1. should be given immediately and consistently
                        2. leads to an increase of acceptable behaviour
                        3. Punishment
                          1. isolation
                            1. used to reduce the frequency of non-desired behaviour
                            2. decreases unacceptable one
                          2. Shaping
                            1. reinforement of successive approximations to the desired behaviour
                              1. when tokens are given by prison staff they are accompanied by praise
                                1. this will eventually replace the tokens as a source of reinforcement
                            2. Cognitive - Evaluation
                              1. Strengths
                                1. unlike simply punishing offenders by imprisonment, cognitive approaches can change thinking patterns
                                  1. should have lasting effects on reducing recidivism
                                  2. Hollin (2004) - male offenders in treatment groups reoffend less than controls
                                    1. Friendship (2002) - both ETS and R&R are effective
                                      1. however, Cann (2003) found that ETS was effective and R&R was not
                                    2. Who benefits?
                                      1. reduced reconviction applies only to those who complete the courses
                                        1. those who fail to complete the course have the most deviant thinking so are the most in need of help but perhaps least able to benefit
                                        2. courses work best with medium and high risk offenders
                                          1. whilst problems of low-risk offenders may have other causes
                                          2. benefits may not be long term
                                            1. Cann (2003) found that although reconviction rates were lower for high-risk male offenders after one year, this advantage had been lost by two years post-release
                                          3. Gender bias
                                            1. programmes were developed for use with male prisoners
                                              1. however, Cann (2003) suggested that the findings may alternatively be due to the absence of the cognitive deficits related to the crimes committed by the women or because the samples were predominantly low-risk individuals
                                          4. Behavioural - Evaluation
                                            1. Immediate and consistent
                                              1. immediate and consistent use of tokens is important for reinforcement to take place
                                                1. Bassett and Blanchard (1977) observed one 3-month programme which failed
                                                  1. attributed to staff misuse of the token system
                                                2. Is it successful?
                                                  1. some evidence suggests that token economies do improve behaviour
                                                    1. Jenkins (1974) followed up young male offenders for 18 months post-release
                                                      1. found differences between a control group and those on cognitive training programmes or a token economy were largely non-significant
                                                        1. however, the token group consistently had the lowest % of post-release offences over the last 9 months
                                                          1. however, Garrido and Morales (2007) found that for juvenile offenders who had committed serious crimes, recidivism was highest when they received no intervention but that cognitive programmes were more effective that behavioural ones
                                                  2. Limitations
                                                    1. token economy approach treats only apparent behaviour such as aggression
                                                      1. doesn't treat the causes of the behaviour
                                                      2. tokens only work if the inmates are motivated to collect tokens
                                                        1. in reality, powerful prisoners may control much more effective reinforcers and punishers than wardens
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