Upbringing psychology


Mind Map on Upbringing psychology, created by HannahJane on 09/02/2015.
Mind Map by HannahJane, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by HannahJane over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Upbringing psychology
  1. Disrupted families: Farrington (1994)
    1. Aim: To document the start. duration and of offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood in families.
      1. Design: Longitudinal survey.
        1. Participants: 411 boys aged 8/9 years from six state schools in East London, born in 1953/4. The boys were predominantly white working class. At age 48, 394 males were still alive, 365 were interviewed.
          1. Results: Age 48, 404 individuals searched in the criminal records, 161 had criminal convictions. Boys who started criminal careers at age 10-13 were nearly all reconvicted at least once (91%). Most of these chronic offenders shared common childhood (Persisters- convicted before and after their 21st ). Compared to those with no convictions, they are more likely to have a convicted parent, a delinquent sibling, a young mother, large family size.
            1. Conclusion: Early prevention that reduces offending could have wide-ranging benefits in reducing problems with relationships, accommodation, employment, drugs and alcohol.
        2. Background: Bowlby' theory of delinquency; seperation from the primary carer in early life can result in delinquent behaviour.
          1. Background: Many studies indicate that delinquents come from broken homes rather than intact homes. E.g divorced parents, neglect (Physical and emotional)
          2. Learning from others: Sutherland (1934)
            1. Background: Bandura- social learning theory. This theory suggests that criminal behaviour is learned by observing others.
              1. Theory: It is based on two core assumptions, 1) Deviance occurs when people define a certain human situation as an appropriate occasion for violating social norms or criminal laws. 2) Definitions of the situation are acquired through an individual's history of past experience.
                1. Theory: 1) Criminal behaviour is learned. Sutherland believed that criminal behaviour was not inherited or a result of any other biological condition. 2) Criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. Sutherland said that it usually involved verbal interaction, however it could also involve gestures. 3) The principle part of learning criminal behaviour occurs within intimate personal groups. 4) When criminal behaviour is learned , the learning includes the techniques of committing the crime. A criminal has to learn the techniques of the trade from someone.
                  1. Theory: 5) The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes. 6) A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favourable to violation of law over definitions unfavourable to violation of law. Individuals become criminal due to repeated contacts with criminal activity. 7) A precise description of the criminal behaviour of a person would be possible in quantitative form by analysing the number of these contacts. 8) Sutherland claims that criminal behaviour is learned just like every other behaviour. 9) While criminal behaviour is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values.
                    1. Conclusion: The theory emphasizes the social-psychology processes by which people produce subjective definitions of their situation in life.
            2. Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods: Wikstrom and Tafel.
              1. Background:
                1. Method: Interview and data collection
                  1. Design: A cross-sectional study
                    1. Participants: Nearly 2000 year 10 pupils from 13 state schools. Aged 14-15.
                      1. Findings: 44.8% of the males and 30.6% of females have committed at least one of the studied crimes during the year 2000. 9.8% of the males and 3.8% of the females have committed a serious crime of theft. High-frequency offenders tend to commit a wide range of different crimes.
                        1. Conclusion: Explanatory factors, The study covers a wide range of explanatory factors, most important was the youths' individual characteristics and the way they lived their lives.
                          1. Conclusion: Key risk factors are weak family and school bonds, poor parental monitoring and truancy, disadvantaged neighbourhoods and poor self control.
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