Th2L01 Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic genes


Medicine Y1 (Theme 2 | Genetics) Mind Map on Th2L01 Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic genes, created by Emma Allde on 18/08/2016.
Emma Allde
Mind Map by Emma Allde, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Allde
Created by Emma Allde over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Th2L01 Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic genes
  1. Eukaryotic genes
    1. Exons
      1. Genome expressed sequence of DNA Genome expressed sequence of DNA
        1. Codes for a protein
          1. About 1.5% of DNA
            1. Found in mature mRNA
            2. Introns
              1. Non-coding
                1. Interrupt mRNA
                  1. 23% of DNA
                    1. Not found in mRNA
                    2. Non-coding DNA
                      1. Untranscribed regions near genes
                        1. ca. 2% of non-coding regions of DNA
                          1. Areas flanking genes, esp. at the 5' end are important regulatory elements that control the production of mRNA
                          2. Repetitive DNA
                            1. Nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome
                              1. The repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome
                                1. about 50% of DNA
                                  1. Main types
                                    1. Retrotransposable elements
                                      1. Characteristics
                                        1. moderately repetitive
                                          1. thought to move to randomly selected new locations
                                            1. method of movement unknown in human genome
                                            2. classified according to origin
                                              1. LINES
                                                1. Viral retrotransposable elements
                                                  1. Long Interspersed Elements
                                                    1. appears to contains its own reverse transcriptase
                                                    2. SINES
                                                      1. Non-viral retrotransposable elements
                                                        1. Short Interspersed Elements
                                                  2. Satellite DNA
                                                    1. short sequences of DNA that are tandemly repeated as many as 10 million times in the DNA
                                                      1. much of it is located in the telomeres
                                                        1. 8% of entire genome
                                                          1. Role
                                                            1. structural properties of DNA
                                                            2. Clinical sig.
                                                              1. Provides genetic fingerprint □ Used in paternity testing and forensic science
                                                        2. Uncharacterised/junk DNA
                                                          1. about 25% of DNA
                                                      2. Prokaryotic genes
                                                        1. Promoter - coding sequence (5' to 3')
                                                          1. Transcriptor terminator
                                                            1. Transcribed into mRNA
                                                              1. mRNA translated by ribosomes to give a polypeptide
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