The Third Crusade


AS - Level History Mind Map on The Third Crusade, created by Kizzy Leverton on 02/05/2016.
Kizzy Leverton
Mind Map by Kizzy Leverton, updated more than 1 year ago
Kizzy Leverton
Created by Kizzy Leverton almost 8 years ago

Resource summary

The Third Crusade
  1. Motives
    1. King Phillip of France saw the crusade as a chance to take land from his rival (Richard the Lionheart). He wanted to stop Richard from gaining any success
      1. Frederick Barbarossa wanted material glory and piety
        1. King Richard the Lionheart who was the feudal lord of Anjou was the son of Melisende and grandson of King Fulk so had to continue his family crusading legacy.
          1. It was also a way to cleanse his Reputation and sins
            1. He had inherited his fathers throne (Henry II) in 1182 so had enormous resources to fight in the crusade with
            2. The gift of Remission of sins. Society in the West was very violent and the crusade offered a respectful outlet for this violence thus saving souls.
            3. Why did the 3rd Crusade Fail?
              1. Bad Luck
                1. William of Sicily died in Nov 1189 - he had promised to provide crusaders with troops but his succession was disputed which led to Tancred of Leece confiscating the troops
                  1. Frederick Barbarossa died in June 1190
                    1. He had a very large army but his His troops began returning home after his death
                      1. His authority would have subdued rivalry between Richard and Phillip
                        1. He fought in the second crusade so had experience that Richard and Phillip didnt
                      2. Did not achieve its spiritual/religious aim of taking Jerusalem which was the crusades main objective as stated in the opening lines of Pope Eugenius' papal bull
                        1. Caused Spiritual damage to Christendom - its failure made many doubt god and his harsh decision for their sins
                        2. HOWEVER
                          1. The crusaders allowed the latin states to survive - They gained lots of land including Acre, Jaffa, Arsuf and Cyprus
                            1. the future path for the crusade was set-taking egypt and using it as a means of taking jerusalem/going by sea
                              1. Latin states had a power vacuum which was resolved with Henry of Champagne becoming king
                              2. Saladin led a unified Muslim effort. He was an exceptionally able military and political leader as well. He refused to engage the crusaders in open battle again using a scorched earth policy which wore down the crusaders through a process of attrition.
                              3. It ended with a truce in which Saladin kept Jerusalem but Christians were allowed to visit Jerusalem and its holy places unharmed and without having to pay a tribute
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