Language & Power Theorists


A level English Language (Language & Power) Mind Map on Language & Power Theorists, created by chardurtnall on 23/04/2015.
Mind Map by chardurtnall, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by chardurtnall over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Language & Power Theorists
  1. Wareing (1999)
    1. Political Power: power held by those with the backing of the law (e.g. politicians, police, judges, etc.)
      1. Personal Power: power held by individuals as a result of roles in organisations/occupations (e.g. teachers and employees).
        1. Social Group Power: power held as a result of being a dominant member of a social group through social variables such as class gender and age. In Britain, this is often white middle class men.
        2. Norman Fairclough
          1. Power in Discourse: the ways in which power in conveyed through language.
            1. Power behind Discourse: the focus on the social and ideological reasons behind power.
              1. Synthetic Personalisation: the way in which advertising and other forms of communication use personalised language such as the second person pronoun 'you' to construct a relationship between text producer and receiver.
                1. Members' Resources: humans' ability to interpret text based on their background knowledge. Text producers can use this to manipulate people.
                  1. Implied Reader: the target audience of the text. Assumptions made by the text readers' age, gender, class, etc. in order to manipulate them more effectively.
                    1. Power Asymmetry: the difference between the amount of power speakers have (e.g. teacher/pupil).
                      1. Powerful Participant: people with higher status in a given context (e.g. teacher/pupil).
                        1. Less Powerful Participant: people with less status in a given context (e.g. pupil/teacher).
                        2. Politeness Theory (Goffman; Brown and Levinson)
                          1. Face: a person's self-esteem and emotional needs.
                            1. Positive Face: the need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated.
                              1. Negative Face: the need to have freedom of thought and action and not feel imposed on.
                                1. Face-threatening Act: a communicative act that threatens someone's positive or negative face.
                                  1. Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies: strategies that a speaker might use to alleviate or avoid FTA's.
                                  2. Glossary
                                    1. Instrumental Power: power used by individuals or groups to maintain and enforce authority.
                                      1. Influential Power: power used to influence and persuade others. Persuasive features are often used to show influential power.
                                        1. Ideology: a set of beliefs/attitudes held by individuals/groups. It does not just mean political beliefs.
                                          1. Epistemic Modality: modal verbs that express degrees of possibility, probability or certainty (e.g. might).
                                            1. Deontic Modality: modal verbs that express degrees of necessity and obligation (e.g. will).
                                              1. Repressive Discourse Strategy: an indirect way of exercising power and control through conversational constraints.
                                                1. Oppressive Discourse Strategy: linguistic behaviour that is open in its exercising of power/control.
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