Roles of Education


AS Sociology mind map on the roles of education for the Unit 2 Exam
Isobel Wagner
Mind Map by Isobel Wagner, updated more than 1 year ago
Isobel Wagner
Created by Isobel Wagner over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Roles of Education
  1. Main aim of the education is to meet the needs of the economy. 3 ways of doing this is Socialisation, Selection and Skills.
    1. Selection
      1. Via streaming, grades, courses etc
        1. Marxism
          1. No meritocracy but education ensures Cultural reproduction
            1. Elite self recruitment
              1. Occupations are achieved on the basis of who you know, which helps the ruling class families achieve a high occupation.
                1. Sutton trust - 75% law lords are from private education, but only 7% whole population are in private education
                2. Cultural Capital/Deficit
                  1. Bordieu
                    1. Middle class pupils and parents posses cultural capital, values, attitudes and language to help them succeed in middle class school system
                      1. Bernstein - Elaborated code
                      2. Working class posses Cultural deficit, they lack the values, attitudes and language needed to succeed.
                        1. Bernstein - Restricted code
                      3. Gerwitz
                        1. Middle class are better equipped with cultural and economic capital to play the education system, and get their children into the best schools
                      4. Ruling class ideology
                        1. Bowles and Gintis
                        2. Evidence
                          1. Roberts - marjority of working class have came from working class families
                            1. Guardian - Working class pupils make up 11% Oxford intake and 12% Cambridge intake
                        3. Feminism
                          1. Liberal feminism
                            1. Girls do better in exams, at GCSE they do 8% better
                              1. Higher ambitions
                                1. Sharpe and WIlkinson
                            2. Radical Feminism
                              1. Patriarchal ideology, causing boys to benefit more.
                                1. Eventually men do better, with higher pay, 16% more than women
                          2. Functionalism
                            1. Believe that pupils are selected for their future occupations via a number of selection processes, therefore through hard work and natural ability they will earn a position in life. This is Meritocracy
                              1. Parsons - Meritocracy
                                1. Main function of the education system is to put the individuals into their correct occupation based on the qualifications they receive. MERITOCRACY
                                  1. These courses have been awarded on the basis of their natural ability
                                  2. Society is equal > Natural ability and hard work > Rewards eg. Qualifications:Careers
                                    1. We are treated according to our universalistic values, preparing us for work and the realisation that we have to earn our place through hard work
                                      1. Status is achieved not ascribed
                                    2. Davis and Moore - Sifts, Sorts, Selects
                                      1. Education sorts individuals in terms of their abilities, rewarding most talented with qualifications
                                        1. Example - Sets, schools attended
                                        2. Only a limited amount of real talent, hence those at the top deserve their position since only they can fill these occupations
                                      2. Evidence
                                        1. Goldthorpe - Now more long range mobility, from bottom to the top
                                          1. Educational policies helping WC in education
                                            1. Hannah - The top people are from grammar schools, suggesting ability counts
                                        2. Skills
                                          1. Via formal curriculum - education and training
                                            1. Marxism
                                              1. Sceptical of the new vocationalism intoriduced
                                                1. Neo-Marxist
                                                  1. Real function was to instill work discipline and the acceptance of a likely future of low paid, unskilled work with frequent job changes
                                                    1. Skills being developed were not craft but basic skills that only prepared them for unskilled low paid work, that offer little training and promotions
                                                    2. View vocational schemes as legitimising class divisions and inequalities. MC do A-Levels and WC do Btec
                                                      1. Public and Grammar schools don't do Btecs
                                                    3. Finn
                                                      1. Real function of training schemes was to reduce youth unemployment, provide cheap labour for employers and undermine the power of the trade unions.
                                                    4. Feminism
                                                      1. Liberal Feminism
                                                        1. You are taught skills regardless of gender. More girls now do maths and chemistry
                                                        2. Radical Feminism
                                                          1. Patriarchy in terms of corses and skills learnt
                                                            1. Girls - Sociology, Boys - PE
                                                              1. Girls are passive and don't make an active choice
                                                      2. Functionalism
                                                        1. Taught skills for a changing and more complex economy
                                                          1. Durkheim
                                                            1. In school children learn crucial skills for the workplace
                                                              1. Example - Reading, Writing, Maths
                                                            2. Policies aimed at improving our skills - NVQ'S, National Curriculum, Raising the school leaving age
                                                      3. Socialisation
                                                        1. Via the hidden curriculum
                                                          1. Functionalism
                                                            1. School is an agency of secondary socialisation which creates value consensus in society
                                                              1. Durkheim - 2 socilocialisation functions
                                                                1. Social Solidarity - Intergrate's people an teaches them consensual norms and values
                                                                  1. Now known as the hidden curriculum
                                                                    1. Example - In America they are taught the idea of being an American by repeating the oath of allegiance every day
                                                                      1. Teaching the formal curriculum, such as History and religion is central in schools to the creation of solidarity since it gives children a sense of belonging.
                                                                      2. Social intermixing - Children learn vital lessons through socialisation, such as learning to behave with other people, teaching them to all get on in society
                                                                      3. Parsons - School is a 'bridge' between home and work. Focal socialising agency
                                                                        1. In work we are socialised into Universalistic Values and receive an achieved status
                                                                          1. The Education eases the transition to the formal world of meritocracy, and children learn values as well as achievement and equal opportunity
                                                                          2. School crucial to teach values such as achievement and conformity
                                                                      4. Marxism
                                                                        1. Ruling class ideology and cultural reproduction
                                                                          1. Althusser - Ideology and cultural reproduction
                                                                            1. Education is a institution used by ruling class to control working class
                                                                              1. Main function is ideological, so it plays a crucial role in persuading the working class that their position is justified and fully deserve their fate
                                                                                1. IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARTAUS
                                                                              2. Cultural reproduction - keeps the working class working class and middle class middle class
                                                                                1. Ruling class ideology - Teaches working class to accept their position, also teaches certain values that are vital to capitalism, inequalities are inevitable and desirable
                                                                                  1. So the working c;lass accept their position and learn to be passive and submissive, blaming themselves for their position.
                                                                                  2. HOWEVER - A ruling class child in a public school would be taught how to lead, manage and control others.
                                                                                2. Bowles and Gintis - Correspondence theory
                                                                                  1. WC pupils are taught the teacher is powerful and the student is powerless, hence they become passive and obedient
                                                                                    1. WC Pupils are taught to accept alienation and to be content with your grades and pay check
                                                                                      1. WC pupils are taught to accept boredom of school since it paves the way for the shop floor
                                                                                        1. Social class and not ability is the key factor as to what determines success in terms of qualifications
                                                                                      2. Feminism
                                                                                        1. Liberal feminism
                                                                                          1. There is now more equality due to legislation changes
                                                                                            1. Example - 1970 equal pay act and 57% student at uni are female
                                                                                            2. Value consensus is about equality
                                                                                            3. Radical feminists - Patriarchal ideology
                                                                                              1. Kelly - The books we learn in English are mainly written by men
                                                                                                1. Heaton and Lawson - Teachers have expectations, these are often sexist towards women
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