GCSE AQA Biology 1 Adaptations, Competition & Environmental Change


Mind map showing information about animal and plant adaptations, competition and what causes and how to measure environmental change
Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato about 9 years ago

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Biology 1 Adaptations, Competition & Environmental Change
  1. Desert animal adaptations
    1. Large surface area: volume ratio
      1. Lose more body heat
      2. Efficient with water
        1. Lose less by producing...
          1. ...small amounts of concentrated urine
            1. ...little sweat
          2. Good in hot conditions
            1. Thin layers of body fat/coat to lose body heat (camels keep most fat in hump)
            2. Camouflage
              1. Sandy colour - can avoid predators/sneak up on prey
            3. Arctic animal adaptations
              1. Small surface area: volume ratio
                1. Reduces heat loss
                2. Well insulated
                  1. Thick layer of blubber (energy store)
                    1. Thick, hairy coats - keep body heat in
                      1. Greasy fur - sheds water which prevents cooling due to evaporation
                      2. Camouflage
                        1. White fur - can avoid predators/sneak up on prey
                      3. Desert plant adaptations
                        1. Small surface area: volume ratio
                          1. Plant lose water vapour from surface of leaves
                            1. Cacti have spines instead to reduce water loss
                          2. Water storage tissues
                            1. Cactus stores water in thick stem
                            2. Maximising water absoption
                              1. Cacti have shallow but extensive roots - absorb water quickly over large area
                                1. Others have deep roots - access underground water
                            3. Adaptations to deter predators
                              1. Armour
                                1. Roses - thorns
                                  1. Cacti - sharp spines
                                    1. Tortoises - shells
                                    2. Poisons
                                      1. Bees and poison ivy
                                      2. Warning colours
                                        1. Wasps
                                      3. Extremophiles
                                        1. Microorganisms - adapted to live in extreme conditions e.g. volcanoes, salty lakes, high pressure
                                        2. Competition
                                          1. Plants compete for: light, space, water and minerals (nutrients)
                                            1. Animals compete for: space (territory), food, water and mates
                                            2. Environmental change
                                              1. Caused by...
                                                1. Living factors
                                                  1. Change in occurence of diseases
                                                    1. Change in number of predators
                                                      1. Change in number of prey/availability of food source
                                                        1. Change in number/types of competitors
                                                        2. Non-living factors
                                                          1. Change in average temp.
                                                            1. Change in average rainfall
                                                              1. Change in level of air/water pollution
                                                            2. Affects population...
                                                              1. Population size increases


                                                                • If number of prey increases, more food for predators - more predators survive & reproduce
                                                                1. Population size decreases


                                                                  • e.g. Number of bees in US falling rapidly. Could be because of pesticides, less food or more disease
                                                                  1. Population distribution changes


                                                                    • Change in where an organism lives
                                                                2. Measuring environmental change
                                                                  1. Living indicators


                                                                    • Some organisms very sensitive to changes in environment - indicator species
                                                                    1. Lichen - very sensitive to levels of sulphur dioxide
                                                                      1. Lots of lichen = clean air
                                                                      2. Mayfly larvae - sensitive to concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
                                                                        1. Mayfly larvae = clean water
                                                                        2. Rat-tailed maggots & sludgeworms - adapted to live in polluted conditions
                                                                          1. Rat-tailed maggots and sludgeworms = high level of water pollution
                                                                        3. Non-living indicators
                                                                          1. Satellites - measure temp. of sea surface & amount of snow/ice cover
                                                                            1. Automatic weather stations - measure atmospheric temp.
                                                                              1. Rain gauges - measure rainfall
                                                                                1. Dissolved oxygen meters - measure amount in water (water pollution)
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