The villain of the book. Doesn't have many redeeming
qualities in comparison to Snowball- his opposition.
Napoleon doesn't appear to fight in the battle of the
cowshed- chap 4. He seems to disappear- showing him to be a
coward. Again, this contrasts with Snowball, who fights bravely
and strategically- also results in the victory.
Napoleon doesn't say much in the meetings held in the
barn. But still has a reputation of getting what he wants-
how he wants. This suggests he doesn't truly care about the
animals future OR Animalism. At this point Orwell seems to
be hinting to us the ambitious selfish nature he beholds
(foreshadowing his drift from the principles once his power
Cunning: "That, he said, was
Uses cunning and brutality to get his own way.
Is completely threatened
by Snowball; who is a
clever, well-spoken, military
hero and charismatic
Due to his jealousy, Napoleon
belittles and undermines
Snowball by teaching the
sheep (brain-washing) them into
interrupting his speeches at
crucial points, purely because
he knows he has no chance of
winning over the animals and
gaining power if Snowball is on
After his exile, Napoleon uses
Snowball as a scapegoat. This
results in the animals turning
against him. This ensures no one
will fight for Snowball to return
and get rid of Napoleon as
He promotes fear e.g dogs and patriotic
feeling to get his own
way/disguise from what is really
Uses terror to control the farm and the thoughts
of the animals. The animals are forced to make
false confessions at the show trials in chap 7-
then are executed by the dogs. Makes everyone
aware of his power- prevents anyone turning
against him as they know the consequences.
'Show trials' mimic the purge Stalin
ordered against people he believed
were involved in a conspiracy against
him with Trotsky (Snowball) 1930s.
Ruthless: "a pile of corpses lying
before Napoleon's feet" following
the show trials- chap 7.
Napoleon doesn't care about the welfare of the animals.
He uses them for his own benefit: to work, to help the
farm prosper through making them make sacrafices (the
hens eggs- goes against OM's teachings), Boxer's death-
Napoleons ruthless attitude and drive
to get his own way refers to the tyrant
Stalin whom too soon drifted from
original principles to his own form of
He adopts the puppies, but only to train them to
become his 'army'. Forces the other animals to
work 60-hour weeks, whilst he does nothing to
contribute. He, along with the other pigs steals
the milk and apples- placing ownership on both
items for his own good.
Just as bad as Jones? OR worse?
His transition from pig to human is complete
by the end of the novel. He stands on two legs,
drinks whisky (links back to Jones' constant
drunk state) and wears clothes. Weren't all
animals suppose to go naked?
By the end, the original Seven
Commandments of Animalism were
completely forgotten. The animals are
starving and overworked, but in a
much worse position than they were
under farmer Jones. Refers to the
cyclical structure of the novel- ended
up right where they began.
Animalism failed because one tyrant leader (Jones)
was replaced by another, Napoleon. Allegory for how
the all-powerful Tsar was replaced by Stalin and his
Corrupt: "There was only
candidate, Napoleon" in reference
to who would be the president of
Napoleon uses the animals lack of intelligence to
alter the commandments of Animalism as and
when he pleases. He takes advantage of their
inferior education and uses it to benefit his and
the pigs increasingly human like behaviour. That
being drinking alcohol, engaging in trade, sleeping
in the beds, killing other animals, wearing clothes,
having friendships with humans.
Distorts the BOTC to make himself appear as a hero
and Snowball as a traitor who was infact working
alongside the humans all along.
Gets rid of sunday meetings
and effectively freedom of
speech- with this he also gets
rid of the animals challenging
his new rules. Language is
power and he prevents the
animals from having the little
power they previously did. The
special comitee of pigs decide
the debates. He suppresses
The animals have their doubts about Napoleon-
but they don't act on their suspicions. They have
been brainwashed by manipulation and
propaganda (Squealer) that "Napoleon is always
right"- a maxim Boxer adopts in chap 5.
Stalin used propaganda
in the same way to
glorify him as a kind,
caring leader- when in
reality he was the
Selfish (consistently places
himself before the other animals):
"Reputation for getting his own
Sees himself as better than the
other animals in many ways-
seems to believe he doesn't have
to work like the rest because of
Changes the principles of
Animalism for his own benefit-
"No animal shall drink alcohol to
access"- Shows that he quickly
forgets any ideals of Animalism
that he may have believed in.
Criticises Snowball towards
his plans for the windmill-
abolishes him from the farm
due to this- then proceeds to
build the windmill himself.
He takes full credit for
someone elses work/ideas.
Napoleon soon becomes a paranoid, brutal tyrant
who's revelling in the power he has- gradually
descreasing as time passes. (Demise fully starts chap
5- abolishment of Snowball)
Character Profile- Snowball
Smart, idealistic character who wants
Animalism to succeed and believes in equality
of all animals. Opposite of Napoleon.
Brave and strong military leader- has
good strategies and plans which work and
result in victory, e.g. BOTC. Alike to
Trotsky who also was a clever,
quick-thinker in battles.
He doesn't falter even when injured, continues to
lead charge and fight for the farm- contrasts
extremely with Napoleon who isn't present. Willing to
die for Animalism, he states all animals should be
prepared to do this- increasing control.
For his bravery is recognised as a hero; awarded 'Animal Hero, First
Class' along with Boxer. This creates a new divide and splits the animals
even further. But also encourages the rest of animals to be like him.
He is intelligent but not very cunning. He is lively and a
quick thinker, but doesn't have the 'same depth of
character' as Napoleon.
Intelligent: "full of plans for innovations and
improvements" to make the animals lives
Brave: "He himself dashed
straight for Jones"
Eloquent: "won over the majority by
his brilliant speeches"
Idealistic: "Snowball conjured up
pictures of fantastic machines"
Desperate for Animalism to succeed:
Wants Major's utopian vision
to become a reality.
Writes the Seven Commandments on the
barn wall (prominent place) for all animals
to see. But most of the animals are
Draws up plans for the windmill- an idea
created in mind to lessen the animals
hardship- give them a "3 day week".
His plans would require the animals to work but
would be beneficial for them in the long-run.
Completely different to Napoleon who made
them work for him and his benefit aka whiskey.
After the rebellion
Snowball and Napoleon
become leaders of Animal
Farm- but Napoleon
doesn't want to share the
They cant agree- S wants to
encourage ALL animals on
ALL farms to rebel so they
don't have to worry about
defending themselves from
N wants to build up power
and security on Animal
Snowball is an excellent speaker
but Napoleon is better at
"canvassing support for himself"
outside the debates. We do not
know the way he gains votes but
we can assume it was a. form of
manipulation b. promoting fear
Napoleon is utterly threatened by
Snowballs heroism, intelligence and
influence over the farm, so like the pig
he is; begins to bully him...
Trains the sheep to interrupt his speeches as vital parts.
When Snowball draws up the
windmill plans, Napoleon
'urinates' all over them- showing
Snowball is eventually chased off the farm by Napoleons
beloved indoctrinated puppies- chap 5.
Napoleon takes any
chance he gets to
turn the animals
He spreads vicious lies and
rumours about the threat of
S to safeguard his own
Snowball is eventually
condemned as a traitor, liar and a
friend of Farmer Jones.
He becomes a scapegoat for all problems
that occur on the farm- when the windmill
blows down chap 6 during a storm,
Snowball gets the blame. He becomes the
"source of all evil" much to Napoleon's
N denounces S as a dangerous outside enemy and
puts himself forward as the PROTECTOR of Animal
Farm- surely he is he opposite. Anyway, this helps
to keep the animals believing positive things about
their (cough, corrupt, cough) leader.
When Stalin came into power- he order Trotsky to
be exiled. (Along with other political rivals- so there was
no opposition). It almost as if Orwell is doing this on
Animal equality and 'working class' animals are
important to him. He explains the principles of
Animalism for the others in simpler terms; so they
can improve their lives on Animal Farm.
He wants to educate all animals to the same
level. Contrasting with Napoleons belief that
the young are more hopeful than the old.
Snowball wants all animals to be equally
educated so no one has the upper hand.
Napoleon wants to keep the animals
uneducated and as a result unquestionably
He has good intentions but
not all animals (most)
understand his complicated
But he isn't all good- he is
over-idealistic. He forms animal
committees but generally these end in
He is dishonest- strives for equality and fairness
among animals but doesn't appear to protest when
Napoleon steals the milk and apples for the pigs.