Strategies To Improve Your Memory

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Psycology Mind Map on Strategies To Improve Your Memory, created by amyg2200 on 16/08/2013.
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Mind Map by amyg2200, updated more than 1 year ago
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Strategies To Improve Your Memory
  1. Strategy 1 Paying Attention
    1. Paying Attention improves your memory.
      1. Multi Store Model Of Memory
        1. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) said there were three stages in their Multi Store Model of memory.
          1. Akinson and Shiffrin suggested that memory had three separate stores, therefore three stages which are; the Sensory Memory Store, the short-term memory and the long-term memory.
          2. Figure 1 (the Multi Store Memory Model)
            1. Sensiry Memory
              1. Your sensory Memory is the first stage. If you do not attend a piece of information it is not noticed or recorded by the senses.
                1. This means the information is not transferred to the short memory or long term memory. This will mean you will not be able to remember it later on.
              2. Forgetting
                1. This is the process, where your brain filters memories out.
                2. Short Term Memory
                  1. is a short term Store
                    1. Also known as a working memory
                  2. Long Term Memory
                    1. It is a long term store.
                    2. How the Multi Store Memory Model Works
                      1. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory.
                        1. If attended to this information it enters the short term memory.
                          1. Information form the short term Memory is transferred to the Long Term Memory only if that information is rehearsed.
                            1. If rehearsal does not occur, than information is forgotten, lost from Short Term Memory through the process of displacement or decay
                        2. This model is also known as the Dual Storage Model
                3. Strategy 2: Retrieval Cues
                  1. Tulving and Osler (1968) said retrieval cues help memory because when we acquire memories we tend to link them to contexts which existed at the time.
                    1. This means the context becomes a clue to retrieving the memory in the future.
                      1. Tulving called this the "encoding specificity principle"
                    2. In Psychology retrieval cues are hints that can help you reccieve a certain memory or piece of information.
                      1. These clues serve as your own mental reminders and they work allowing you to associate new information with stuff you already know.
                        1. Retrieval cues is a stimulus that provides guidance about where to "look" for a piece of information in a long term memory.
                    3. Strategy 3: Organsiation
                      1. Bower et al (1969) found that long term memory was improved when information was organised into meaning patterns.
                        1. This is because long term memory is potentially a limitless store so unless we store information in a structured way we are not going to be able to find it.
                      2. Strategy 4: Content Dependent Retrieval
                        1. Returning to a physical location can help to retrieve information associated with that location or mood.
                          1. Smith (1979) studied context dependent retrieval.
                            1. Research suggests that recall will be best when a person tries to recall the information in the same environment that they learned it in.
                              1. For example, when a student tries to recall information in an exam, they will be able to recall it best if they learned it in an environment which is similar to the exam environment.
                                1. This research can be used to the advantage of the teacher and the student; the teacher can try to make their classroom as similar to an exam setting as possible. The student could make sure that they revise information in a similar setting to an exam (so going to the library or sitting at a desk in a quiet room rather than sitting in bed reading not with music on)
                                  1. when the information learned in a strict classroom/environment needs to be recalled in the real world?
                                2. Anoter example of context-dependence occurs when an individual has lost an item (e.g. lost car keys) in an unknown location. Typically, people try to systematically "retrace their steps" to determine all of the possible places where the item might be located.
                          2. Strategy 5: Application To Memory Improvement
                            1. A particular location for your brain to associate that place with the subject.
                              1. Therefore try and find a particular location for your study of psychology so that you associate that place with the subject.
                                1. Abernethy (1940) found students performed better in tests when they took them in the classroom they has been taught in.
                                  1. Zachmeister and Nyberg (1982) found that it can be helpful to imagine your in the place you learned something if you cannot actually be there. When you are in an exam situation try to imagine you are in the place where you were when you learned the required information and this might help you retrieve memories.
                            2. Strategy 6: Active Processing
                              1. Craik and Lockhart (1975) said that we are more likely to remember material that we have thought deeply and meaningfully about.
                                1. Proposed that memory was enhanced more by depth of processing than by how long information was rehearsed.
                                  1. They suggested that rehearsal was mainly effective if the rehearsal was done in a deep and meaningful way.
                                    1. To improve your memory you can think deeper about the subject. You need to think carefully about what you are reading/ learning and stop every now and again to ask yourself questions to see if you can put the content in your own words. This helps to check to see if you actually understand what you are working on.
                              2. Strategy 8: Method Of Loci
                                1. This Strategy involves creating a picture in your mind of a place or a route you are very familiar with and placing items to be remembered along the route.
                                  1. Has support from a study by Ross and Lawrence (1968).
                                    1. The study consisted of students who had to memorize long lists of items, each about 40 items long using the method of loci.
                                      1. The results showed that recall after studying the lists immediately was about 95%
                                  2. Method of loci is a good method for visual learners and for remebering factual lists of unrelated information in the correct sequence.
                                    1. The route cannot be reused too often or there might be interference between the different lists of information.
                                    2. Strategy 7: Numeric Pegword
                                      1. This involves linking numbers with the image of a word that rhymes
                                        1. e.g. one is a bun, two is a shows, three is a tree, four is a door, five is a hive, six are sticks ect...
                                          1. To remember items you link each item with a different image so the first item would be linked with an image of a bun the second with an image of a shoe ect...
                                          2. Using the Number Pegword Method would be useful for; learning phone numbers, Alphabet- sound a like, number- shape and number rhyme.
                                            1. This method is good for learning a list of items especially if they need to be remembered in order.
                                              1. There is a potential interference between lists if you use the method more than once. It is a slower method than the method of loci because the rhyme has to be repeated each time and this method is not good for remembering abstract ideas.
                                          3. Morris and Reid (1970) found out that twice as many words were remembered with this system.

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