AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration


Mind Map on AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration, created by Gemma Lucinda on 08/10/2014.
Gemma Lucinda
Mind Map by Gemma Lucinda, updated more than 1 year ago
Gemma Lucinda
Created by Gemma Lucinda over 9 years ago

Resource summary

AQA Biology A2 Unit 4 Respiration
  1. Aerobic
    1. Oxygen present
      1. 4 stages: Glycolysis, Link Reaction, Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
        1. 1: GLYCOLYSIS
          1. Occurs in the cytoplasm
            1. Break down of Glucose 6C into 2 x Pyruvate 3C
              1. 1. Phosphorylation of Glucose
                1. Glucose + 2 Pi from hydrolysis of ATP gives energy (Lower AE for next reactions)
                2. 2. Splitting of phosphorylated Glucose.
                  1. 1 x Glucose (6C) ---> 2 x Triose Phosphate molecules (3C)
                  2. 3. Oxidation (H loss) of Triose Phosphate
                    1. NAD + H ---> Reduced NAD
                    2. 4. 2 x ATP Produced ( Direct Substrate Level Phosphorylation).
                      1. Enzymes control reaction to 2 x Triose Phosphate ---> 2 x Pyruvate (3C)
                        1. Pi + ADP ---> 4 x ATP However, 2 x ATP hydrolysed at start, so NET ATP = 2. (+ 2 x Pyruvate & 2 x Reduced NAD)
                      2. Does not require oxygen
                      3. 2: LINK REACTION
                        1. Occur in the mitochondria.
                          1. Oxidation (H loss) of Pyruvate from Glycolysis.
                            1. 2 x Pyruvate actively transported from cytoplasm to mitochondria.
                            2. 4: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
                              1. Occurs on the cristae using enzymes on the membrane to synthesise ATP.
                                1. The H on the reduced coenzymes loss the eletrons; it is these that are transported along the ETC.
                                  1. 1: Coenzymes Reduced NAD & FAD are OXIDISED (loss) and releases electrons and H to create a proton gradient.
                                    1. 2: Electron is passed along protein carriers, losing energy as it goes.
                                      1. 3: Series of Oxidation and Reduction reactions. OXYGEN is the FINAL RECEPTOR and combines with H ---> WATER.
                                        1. 4: Electron energy is now stored in the proton gradient. This energy synthesises ATP (INDIRECT OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION) + ATP synthase on the stalked particles..
                                      2. 3: KREBS CYCLE
                                        1. Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.
                                          1. Break down of Acetylcoenzyme (2C + 4C molecule) into smaller (4C) molecule.
                                            1. Produces 1 x ATP + Reduced FAD & NAD + 2 x Carbon Dioxide.
                                        2. Anaerobic
                                          1. In Animals. NO Carbon Dioxide is released. However, In plants, Carbon Dioxide is released!
                                            1. If no Oxygen is available, the H from reduced NAD (glycolysis) + pyruvate ---> lactate.
                                              1. Oxidised NAD recombines with H in glycolysis.
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