Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

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Chemistry (Organic Chemistry) Mind Map on Organic Chemistry Functional Groups, created by linpubotwheeds on 28/08/2014.
linpubotwheeds
Mind Map by linpubotwheeds, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by linpubotwheeds over 9 years ago
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Resource summary

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups
  1. Alkanes
    1. General Formula
      1. Cn H2n+2
      2. Definition: Hydrocarbons linked by SINGLE BONDS only
        1. EG; methane, ethane, propane
          1. Properties
            1. Boiling Point usually Low
              1. There is only weak van der Waals' force between molecules
              2. Density
                1. Less Dense than water
                2. Solubility
                  1. insoluble in water
                    1. Soluble in organic solvent
                3. Alkenes
                  1. General Formula
                    1. Cn H2n
                    2. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon with double bond(s)
                      1. Properties
                        1. Lower boiling Points
                          1. There is only weak van der Waals' force between molecules
                          2. Density
                            1. Less Dense than water
                            2. Solubility
                              1. Soluble in organic solvent
                                1. insoluble in water
                            3. Alcohol / Alkanol
                              1. contains -OH group
                                1. General Formula
                                  1. Cn H2n+1 OH
                                  2. properties
                                    1. higher boiling point due to hydrogen bond
                                      1. Density
                                        1. usually less dense than water, some with more than 1 -OH gps have higher density
                                        2. Solubility
                                          1. miscible with water
                                            1. forms H-bond with water
                                            2. the longer the alkyl group the lower the solubility
                                        3. Carboxylic acid
                                          1. Properties
                                            1. Characteristic Pungent smell
                                              1. sour taste
                                                1. boiling point even higher than that of alcohol
                                                  1. extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonds
                                                  2. forms dimer in crystal form
                                                    1. Density
                                                      1. >3C: less dense than water
                                                      2. Solubility
                                                        1. miscible with water
                                                          1. forms H-bond with water
                                                          2. the longer the alkyl group the lower the solubility
                                                        2. eg: ethanoic acid in vinegar
                                                          1. Functional gp
                                                            1. -RCOOH
                                                          2. Haloalkanes
                                                            1. General formula: RX (where X is a halogen)
                                                              1. Naming
                                                                1. F: fluoro-
                                                                  1. Cl: Chloro-
                                                                    1. Br: Bromo-
                                                                      1. I: Iodo-
                                                                      2. Properties
                                                                        1. most are liquid in r.t.p
                                                                          1. v.d.w forces
                                                                            1. polar molecules
                                                                          2. density
                                                                            1. decrease with molecular mass
                                                                            2. solubility
                                                                              1. insoluble in water
                                                                                1. soluble in most organic solvents
                                                                                  1. they make excellent organic solvents
                                                                            3. carbonyl compounds
                                                                              1. includes -C(=O)-
                                                                                1. aldehydes
                                                                                  1. naming: -al
                                                                                    1. carbonyl gp bonded to at least 1 H atom
                                                                                      1. -CHO
                                                                                        1. unpleasant and pungent smell
                                                                                        2. ketones
                                                                                          1. naming: -one
                                                                                            1. carbonyl gp bonded to alkyl gps on both sides
                                                                                              1. pleasant and sweet odour
                                                                                              2. properties
                                                                                                1. boiling points higher than alkanes, lower than alcohols
                                                                                                  1. polar molecules
                                                                                                  2. less dense than water
                                                                                                    1. lower members are soluble in water
                                                                                                  3. Esters
                                                                                                    1. properties
                                                                                                      1. characteristic smell
                                                                                                        1. polar, but no H-Bonds
                                                                                                          1. less dense than water
                                                                                                            1. lower members are soluble in water
                                                                                                              1. the O can form H-Bond
                                                                                                            2. RCOOR'
                                                                                                              1. naming
                                                                                                                1. alkyl alkanoate
                                                                                                              2. Amides
                                                                                                                1. -CONH2
                                                                                                                  1. -amide
                                                                                                                    1. properties
                                                                                                                      1. higher boiling point than carboxylic acid
                                                                                                                        1. extensive H-Bond
                                                                                                                          1. contains 2 H and 2 lone pairs
                                                                                                                        2. slightly higher density than water
                                                                                                                          1. lower members are soluble in water
                                                                                                                            1. can form H-Bond
                                                                                                                        3. Amines
                                                                                                                          1. -amine
                                                                                                                            1. RNH2
                                                                                                                              1. Properties
                                                                                                                                1. liquids have a fishy smell
                                                                                                                                  1. gases have characteristic ammonia smell
                                                                                                                                    1. lower melting points than alcohols
                                                                                                                                      1. less dense than water
                                                                                                                                        1. lower members very soluble in water
                                                                                                                                        2. amino-
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