Functional Groups


12th grade Biology (Biomolecules) Flashcards on Functional Groups, created by Julia David on 25/07/2017.
Julia David
Flashcards by Julia David, updated more than 1 year ago
Julia David
Created by Julia David over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Functional Group a specific group of atoms that allows a molecule to react differently or have special properties
the function of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups contribute to the water solubility of a molecule
hydroxyl group structure -OH
carbonyl group structure C=O
Carbonyl functional group examples Aldehyde and Ketone
Aldehyde group where the carbonyl group (C=O) is at the end with a hydrogen atom.
Ketone group C=O group is in the middle of the molecule
What do sugar molecules all have? carbonyl groups either ketone or aldehyde
Ether R-O-R' Where oxygen is in the middle (connected to two carbon chains)
Ethers are common linkages in ____ carbohydrates and lignin
the function of carboxyl groups -COOH or -COO Weak ACIDS dissociating partially to release hydrogen ions
Alcohol R-OH Carbon chain connected to a hydroxyl group
Ester R-COO-R' commonly formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol + produces water.
What happens to the hydrogen atom in an Ester? It is replaced by either hydrocarbon group: - Alkyl group (methyl or ethyl) - benzene ring (phenyl)
the function of amino groups -NH BASES contain nitrogen and may be ionized by the addition of a hydrogen ion, forming positive charges
Carboxyl functional group examples Carboxylic acid and ester (also amides but it is an amino too)
Hydroxyl functional group examples Alcohol (also carboxylic acid but it is a carboxyl)
Amino group examples 1. Amine 2. Amide
Amine R-NH2
Amide R-CONH cells link together amino acids with an amide (peptide) bond
Sulfur group examples thiol, sulfide, disulfide
function of sulfur groups sulfur is found mainly in proteins in the form of these groups
sulfhydryl or thiol R-SH
disulfide R-S-S
sulfide R-S
function of phosphate group phosphorus occurs mainly as this acidic group found in DNA, RNA, and certain lipids
phosphate R-PO4 (phosphorus has a valence of 5)
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