Ch. 1 Introducing Psychology


Chapter 1 Psychology Vocabulary words
victoria russ
Flashcards by victoria russ, updated more than 1 year ago
victoria russ
Created by victoria russ about 9 years ago

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Question Answer
Psychology the study of behavior and mental processes of humans and animals
4 Goals of Psychology 1. To describe behavior 2. To explain behavior 3. To predict behavior 4. To influence (control or modify) the behavior
Nature vs. Nurture Long standing debate about relative contributions of heredity and environment on behavior
Nature vs. Nurture May surprise you to learn that the movie Megamind addresses the nature vs. nurture issue: are we a product of our “nature” (genes) or our “nurture” (how we were raised) ?
Physiological relating to the body (key word=physical)
Cognitive refers to mental activities
Tabula Rasa (John Locke's Big Idea) (COPY) idea that we are born a blank slate KNOWING NOTHING, "we are born a white sheet of paper & experience writes upon it
John Locke said we are born a "blank slate" in other words a white sheet of paper that experience writes on. this is called a __________ ___________. Tabula Rasa
(COPY) Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory in 1879; considered to be the "father of psychology"
Sigmund Freud Founded psychoanalysis; used techniques like free association and dream analysis to study unconscious mind
John B. Watson One of the founders of behaviorism. Known for the "infamous" Little Albert experiment.
B.F. Skinner Behaviorist believed that psychology should focus exclusively on observable behavior . His BIG ideas include operant conditioning, reinforcements, and the Skinner Box.
Early behaviorist; did the Little Albert Experiment; a boy called Little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of a white rat John B. Watson
First American woman to receive a PH.D in psychology Margaret Floy Washburn
First female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) Mary Whiton Calkins
an educated guess; a testable prediction Hypothesis
research or science meant to expand our knowledge base; OPPOSITE of applied science Basic (pure) research
research or science used to solve real problems: in other words you APPLY psychology principles to solve problems Applied Research (aka Applied Science)
step-by-step procedure psychologists use when conducting research. scientific method
dualism Belief that the mind and the body are separate entities
science of skull bumps Phrenology
Early approach in psychology developed by Edward Bradford Titchener ( a student of Wilhelm Wundt) that used introspection to identify the most basic components, or structures of conscious experiences structuralism
Introspection "looking inward" and examining one's self and one's own actions in order to gain insight. Problem with introspection not very scientific, unreliable relies on self reporting, Read more about introspection at
Introspection (Structuralism)
_______ was an early approach that rejected introspection. Instead of asking subjects to describe the emotion of fear, ________ studied how fear enables people to adapt to their environment. Functionalism; functionalists
Structuralism- Edward Bradford Titchener, introspection Functionalism-William James (wrote 1st psych textbook); based on theory of evolution emphasized studying the function of a behavior; "how does the behavior help the organism to adapt & survive
This approach emphasized the role of unconscious urges and conflicts in determining behavior psychoanalysis (aka psychoanalytic perspective)
Founded psychoanalysis ("Analysis of the Mind"; "The Talking Cure") Some of his BIG ideas include the id,ego, and superego, Oedipus Complex, free association, Freudian slip, defense mechanisms, & dream interpretation. Sigmund Freud
looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer, Formed partially as a response to structuralism which focused on breaking down mental events and experiences to the smallest elements Gestalt psychology
Perspective that emphasizes observable BEHAVIOR that can be objectively measured Behaviorism
Perspective that emphasizes the importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior Humanistic psychology
This perspective compares the mind to a computer that encodes, processes, and stores information. Emphasizes thinking, perceiving, and information processing Cognitive perspective
Influenced by the writings of Charles Darwin, this perspective emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes. evolutionary perspective
Psychologists who employ the __________ perspective study biological basis of human and animal behavior biological (aka biomedical)
This perspective focuses on how culture and social situations affect the way people think, feel, and behave. sociocultural
The most popular career in psychology. These psychologists specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. clinical psychology
________________ psychologists apply the principles of psychology to the workplace, including employee motivation, job satisfaction and personnel selection. Industrial-Organizational (I/O) psychologists
Harry Harlow Monkey Study BIG IDEA-- "contact comfort" Cruelty towards monkeys
7 Perspectives
7 Perspectives (Hand Mnemonic) 1. Psychoanalytic (thumb, look back over your shoulder.) 2. Cognitive (Pointer finger. tap side of your head.) 3. Behavioral (Middle finger, it's a learned behavior.) 4. Humanistic (ring finger, marriage, having a family living up to your "fullest potential" 5. Biological (Pinky finger, "Pinky and the Brain") 6. Socio-cultural (palm of your hand) 7. Evolutionary (imaginary 6th finger)
Marshmallow experiment 1972, at Stanford University. Psychologist Walter Mischel studied delayed gratification (patience) in children.
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