|How did the Germans feel about losing the first world war?
|They felt that Germany was treated very harshly in the Treaty of Versailles and they resented the government for signing it.
|How close did the Weimar republic come to toppling? Stab in the back.
|They had to sign an agreement ending the first world war, the war had been going well but the Republic had no choice but the sign this, it made people bitter and angry as they wanted someone to blame, the German army had been "stabbed in the back" by the new government.
|How close did the Weimar republic come to toppling? Treaty of Versailles.
|The treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty created by international governments, the German people felt humiliated by it but had no choice but to accept it as allies threatened another war if they didn't. Opponents of the government blamed Weimar for signing it, it proved them as weak.
|How close did the Weimar republic come to toppling? Political violence.
|Political violence, The government was democratic so people had the option to choose their government, Extremists governments wanted to destroy the Weimar. Left wing parties such as the Communist party believed that they should run the country on behalf of the workers. However right wing parties such as the Nazi party believed that Germany should have a strong leader whom everyone should obey.
|How close did the Weimar republic come to toppling? Hyperinflation.
|Hyperinflation was caused by the German government not having enough money to pay back the reparations, so they printed more money, meaning money was not worth as much. People lost confidence in the German government and prices rose to ridiculous amounts (1$ 1923 was 200 billion marks) German mark was worthless by 1923.
|How close did the Weimar republic come to toppling? Invasion of the Ruhr.
|Invasion of the Ruhr, as Germany failed to keep up with reparations they could not repay France, this made France angry and in 1922, 60,000 French and Belgium troops marched into the Ruhr and sized control of all mines, factories and railways. The German government told all workers to cooperate with the French and all workers went on strike. 140 Germans were killed with clashes with the troops and workers received money form the government to support their families, increasing their debt.
|1924-29 The golden age of the Weimar Republic? Hyperinflation and France in the Ruhr.
|Hyperinflation was solved by introducing a new currency and scraping the old Mark. The French invasion of the Ruhr was solved by continuing passive resistance, paying the workers in the Ruhr that they can continue with their strike and threatening to force the French to leave if they won't leave willingly.
|1924-29 The golden age of the Weimar Republic? Germany not trusted and reparations.
|Germany is not trusted by other countries. This is solved by making a series of treaties with European countries and promising to stick to the terms of the TOV. The problem of the reparations is also solved by promising to pay the reparations in full, and persuading the allies to give them longer to pay the money back in full. They borrowed money from the USA.
|1924-29 The golden age of the Weimar Republic? Ecomony.
|Germany needs to rebuild its economy, it does this by getting loans from the USA and using this money to build new homes, roads and hospitals. Tax rich people more and use the money to increase pensions and help the unemployed.
|Did Streseman solve the problems faced by the Weimar republic?
|Many say that he did not actually solve the problems and just introduced short term ideas that will not solve them for long term. He covered up the country's problems however Germany remained weak and unstable underneath. However when he died Germany had one of the strongest economies in Europe and was well trusted and respected by other countries.
|Why were they depressed in the Great Depression?
|The US stock market crashed and the US banks had to recall of of their loans to Germany. German firms went bankrupt and unemployment rises, millions lost their jobs. Many Germans were forced to live in poverty and have less money to spend on goods, so the demand for goods drop, and more German firms close. This circle made people staving and unemployed. The Germans were angry and blamed politicians for not running the country correctly, they turned to extremist groups such as the Nazis.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Wall street crash.
|The wall street crash left the German people feeling vulnerable and angry for how the German government had allowed this to happen. They blamed the political parties for how the country had been run and people started to support extreme political parties such as the Nazis.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Fear of communism.
|The fear of communism- The German communist part was the largest in Europe and many German people began to fear that the Communist party would take over the government.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Weak opposition.
|Weak opposition - The opposition of the Nazis was weak and divided. Their two main rivals, the Communist and the Democratic party were enemies and refused to work together against the Nazis. The German people had also lost trust in the parties whom were in power during the great depression. the rival parties argued among themselves about what to do and did not offer strong and effective leadership.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? point 4 (other events)
|In July 1932 the Nazis won 37 percent of the vote, however this did not have the majority needed to control the Reichstag. Hitler demanded to be made chancellor however Hindenburg refused and appointed his friend Papen, he soon faced problems and was not supported by the Reichstag. Schleicher persuaded Hindenburg to make him chancellor, however he also did not have the support of the Reichstag. Papen wanted revenge, Papen and Hitler formed a new government.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Leadership skills.
|Hitlers leadership skills. Hitler was a strong leader who was able to make people believe that he could solve the problems faced by Germany. He was a powerful and inspiring public speaker.He was able to fill the audience with a sense of hope.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Nazi Promises.
|Nazi promises. The Nazis focused on issues that were big deals among the German people. They promised to: Solve Germanys economic problems, Provide strong leadership skills,Ignore the TOV, and make Germany a great country again. Their promises were designed to appeal to everyone, from business men to factory workers. If they found a policy that was unpopular, they would just drop it.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Organisation.
|Organisation: The Nazis were good at raising money for their election campaigns. The money came from original members as the Nazis attracted big business men.Nazi party members worked hard to spread the messages of the Nazis be handing out leaflets door to door and holding public meetings. The SA also played an important role as they made the Nazis look capable of bringing law and order to Germany.
|How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? Propaganda.
|Nazi propaganda was organised by Josef Goebbles. The Nazis used the latest technology eg loudspeakers, slideshows and films to spread the Nazi messages.They also used mass rallies and marhes to give the public a good impression. They used powerful propaganda posters with catchy slogans which spread their ideas and messages.
|Who were the brown shirts?
|The Sa stands for "Strum Abteilung" or Stormtroopers. The were called brown shirts because of their brown uniform. More than half of the members came from the unemployed and many were ex-WW1 soldiers. The SA provided thm with food and sometimes a home. The SA were incredibly powerful and important to Hitler, as they helped protect Nazi speakers and helped deliver propaganda messages to people homes, some people seemed impressed by their organisation.
|What happened in Munich in 1923?
|In 1923 the Munich Putsch happened. This was that the Nazis planned to take over the government and set up General Ludendorff as the leader of Germany. They started in Munich. Hitler and 600 of his SA burst into a meting where the leader of Bavaria (Kahr) was speaking. They forced Kahr to promise to support their plan. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party believed that democracy only led to a weak government and they thought there should be a single leader. The Putsch was not planed properly and the following day Kahr removed his support.The German government responded quickly and arrested Hitler and his others, 14 Nazis were killed during the arrest, Hitler was sent to prison for 5 years, but came out after 9 months, during this time the Nazis fell apart.
|Why did the support for the Nazis decline in the years 1924-28?
|This was during the Golden years of the Weimar republic. Stresemann had managed to solve the economic problems faced by the 20s, people felt better off. Stresemann had also managed to build better relationships with other countries and political violence in Germany had decreased. The Nazis also lacked support of the working class as many voted for the social democratic party and workers who wanted to see change voted for the Communist party. Also, people were put off by Hitlers Anti-Semitic views and their plans to invade other countries. The SA were also very violent and were see no more than hired thugs.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Reichstag fire.
|The Reichstag fire (27 Febuary 1933) was a fire in the place where the government meets. A dutch Communist was found at the scene and blamed for starting the fire. This ruined the publics opinions of Communits as the Nazis claimed that this was the start of the Communists attempt to take over the government. That night 4000 Communist leaders were arrested. The next day Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to give him emergency powers with granted him the ability to arrest people and hold them for as long as possible without trial. Thousands of people whom opposed the Nazi party were arrested and the Nazis banned meetings by their political opponents.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, New elections.
|(5 March) The Nazis used the police and the SA to put pressure on their political opponents. More than 50 people who didn't agree with the Nazis were killed and many more were injured. The Nazis used the radio to broadcast their message and gave radios away cheaply. The fear of the SA persuaded people into voting for the Nazis and helped them achieve their best ever vote yet with 44 percent of the vote.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Enabling law.
|(24 March) Hitler still wanted more, he wanted the enabling law. This allowed Hitler to pass any law without having to go through the Reichstag or the president. He needed to get two thirds of the Reichstag to agree. He did this by banning the Communist party, persuading the center party by ensuring the Catholic church would be protected. Only Social democrats voted against it and the Enabling law won 444 to 94.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Trade unions.
|(2 May) In order to ensure that the people did not strike out against Hitler he banned all Trade unions. All trade union offices were taken over and union leaders were arrested. All trade unions were merged into one, The German Labour Front, DAF, The DAF was controlled by the Nazis.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, All political parties banned.
|(July) A new law was introduced banning people from forming new political parties. The communist and the Social Democratic party were already banned by this stage and other political parties had been broken up. This ensured that no one could challenge the Nazis and there was only one party in Germany.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Night of the Long knives.
|(29-30 June 1934) Hitler had become concerned at the increasing power of the SA, It had 3 million members and wanted to take control of the army. The leader, Ernst Rohm was a clost friend of Hitlers, however he suddenly started to view him as a rival. Hitler had another reason for attcking the SA, he wanted to reassure the army they were not a threat. This is as the army were small but well disciplined and was the only organisation that had the power to overthrow Hitler. On the night of the long knives, SA leaders were draggd from their beds, taken to Nazi headquarters and shot dead. Rohm was arrested, when he refused to commit suicide he was shot dead.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Death of Hindenburg.
|(2 August) When Hindenburg died, Hitler made himself President as well as Chancellor. Hitler was now undisputed head of the government.
|Hitlers path to dictatorship, Army oath.
|(August) The army took a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler. He was not supreme commander of all the armed forces. All German soldiers swore to obey Hitler and to risk their life for him at any time.
|The Putsch was not planed properly and the following day Kahr removed his support.The German government responded quickly and arrested Hitler and his others, 14 Nazis were killed during the arrest, Hitler was sent to prison for 5 years, but came out after 9 months, during this time the Nazis fell apart.