|Where do metals come from?
|Metals are found in the Earth's crust, most metals are found in their ores
|Why don't we find gold in an ore?
|Because it is unreactive and won't react with chemicals around it
|Which metal oxides can we use carbon to extract the metal from?
|Metal oxides where the metal is below carbon in the reactivity series
|Which metals cannot be extracted using carbon?
|Metals above carbon in the reactivity series
|How do we extract iron from iron ore?
|By reducing it using carbon in a blast furnace
|Why is pure iron not very useful?
|It is too soft
|What are alloys?
|A mixture of different metals usually put together to make the metal stronger
|What are the important examples of steels?
|-Low carbon steels, which are easily shaped -High carbon steels which are very hard -Stainless steels which are resistant to corrosion
|Why are aluminium and titanium so useful?
|They are stainless steels and therefore can resist corrosion
|What method is used to extract metals that are more reactive than carbon?
|Why are aluminium and titanium so expensive to extract?
|Because electrolysis has many stages and requires large amounts of energy
|How is copper obtained from copper-rich ores?
|Smelting (roasting), where you heat the copper in a furnace with air to produce crude copper
|What methods can be used to obtain copper from low-grade ores?
|Bioleaching, where bacteria feed on the ores or Phytomining, where plants like broccoli absorb the copper and can then be burnt to leave you with just the copper.
|How is copper purified?
|What are transition metals?
|Metals found in the middle block of the periodic table
|Why are transition metals so useful?
|They are good conductors of electricity and energy, they are strong but can be bent or hammered into useful shapes
|Why is copper such a useful metal?
|It can be bent but is still strong, it does not react with water so it can be used in plumbing
|Why are alloys more useful than pure metals?
|They are much stronger