Angiosperms: Evolution


Angiosperm: Evolution flash cards
Shareef Akbari
Flashcards by Shareef Akbari, updated more than 1 year ago
Shareef Akbari
Created by Shareef Akbari almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What phylum is the potential ancestor of angiosperms? Gnetophyta
What are some traits in common between gnetophyta and anthophyta? Strobili resemble certain inflorescences Contain tracheids and vessel elements No archegonia in Gnetum and Welwitschia Pseudo double fertilization in Ephedra (no endosperm)
What does the morphological data suggest about the relationship between gnetophyta and anthophyta? ephedra split off first, then welwitschia and gnetum
What does molecular data suggest about the relationship between gnetophyta and anthophyta? Gnetophyta split off wayyyy back.
Why do we believe all angiosperms come from a common ancestor? All have closed carpels All have 3-nucleate microgametophytes All have true double fertilization All have 8-nucleate megagametophyte All have sieve tubes and companion cells in phloem All have stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs
What are magnolids? Plants that can't be easily put into monocots or dicots
What types of plants are put into magnolids? Herbs some Trees and shrubs
Are magnolids monophyletic or polyphyletic? Polyphyletic
What are the traits of magnolids? perianth with tepals Low, variable number of tepals, stamens and carpels Imperfect angiospermy with free carpels
What is the first division of angiosperms? Monoaperturate/triapturate
Which group is at the base of angiosperms, and what does the acronym stand for? ANITA Amborella Nymphaeales Illiciales Trimeniaceae Austrobaileya
What is the reason for the evolution of angiosperms? Pollinators
Describe the evolution of traits between ANITA and other angiosperms? Intermediate floral parts to definite and decrease number of floral parts Decrease in number of whorls Fusion of floral parts Inferior ovary with fused carpels Distinct calyx and corolla Actinomorphic to zygomorphic
Are Orchidaceae monocots or dicots? Monocots
What is the ovary position of Orchidaceae? Epigynous
What is the column of orchidaceae made from? Stamens fused with styles and stigma
How many petals does Orchidaceae have? 3
What are the steps of fertilisation in Orchidaceae? 1. Bee enters from the side of the flower 2. Bee falls in because the petal is slippery 3. Pollinia are stuck to the thorax of the bee with glue 4. Bee enters another flower and falls in. Pollination occurs.
Are Asteraceae monocots or dicots? Dicots
What is the flower position of Asteraceae? Epigynous
What is anemophily? Cross-fertilization
What are the features of a successful flower? 1. They are sources of food 2. They have an enclosed or inferior ovary 3. Hermaphroditic flowers to increase pollinator efficiency
What is a simple fruit? Develops from single ovary with one or many carpels.
What is an aggregate fruit? Formed from multiple separate carpels.
What is a multiple fruit? Made from the gynoecium of multiple flowers in an inflorescence.
What is an accessory fruit? Includes floral parts other than the ovary
What is a parthenocarpic fruit? Fruit that develops without fertilisation.
Label this diagram.
What is a berry? Fruit with fleshy pericarp
What is a drupe? Fruit with fleshy mesocarp but stony endocarp
What is a pome? Fruit with a tough membrane as endocarp, fleshy mesocarp and some fleshy tissue from receptacle.
What are dihesent dry fruit? Fruit that are dry and break open to free seeds
What are indihiscent dry fruit? Fruit that are dry but don't break open.
What are second metabolites important for? Plant defense
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