Angiosperms: Introduction


Angiosperm: introduction flash cards
Shareef Akbari
Flashcards by Shareef Akbari, updated more than 1 year ago
Shareef Akbari
Created by Shareef Akbari almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are angiosperms distinguished by? Flowers Fruits Extreme reduction of gametophyte generation.
What are the two classes of angiophyta? Liliopsida Magnoliopsida
What are the differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons) Monocots: 1 cotyledon in embryo parallel nervation of leaves Scattered vascular Bundles No true secondary growth Flowers have 3 petals Pollen has 1 hole (monoaperturate) Dicots: 2 cotyledons Leaf has net-like innervation Vascular bundles in a ring Secondary growth from cambrium 4-5 leaves on flowers Pollen has 3 holes (traperturate)
What is a flower? Determinate shoot with growth of limited duration
What are carpels? Megasporophylls Collection of female parts of the flower
What are stamens? Microsporophylls Collection of male parts of a flower
What is an inflorescence? Cluster of flowers dispersed in a definite pattern
What are sporophylls? Modified leaves that bear sporangia.
What are carpels? Megasporophylls that contain ovules that develop into seeds.
What are stamens? Microsporophylls that develop into pollen grains.
How many whorls does a flower have? 4
What is the perianth? 2 whorls of sterile parts in a flower composed of the calyx and corolla.
What is the calyx? the Sepals
What is the corolla? petals
What are tepals? When petals and sepals are similar in shape and colour.
What is the androecium? Stamens
What is the gynoecium? Carpals
What is a pistil? Fused carpals
Label this diagram
Label this diagram
What is an anther? 4 sporangia on a filament
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Label this diagram
Label this diagram
What type of placentation is this? Parietal
What type of placentation is this? Axile
What type of placentation is this? Free central
What type of placentation is this? Apical
What type of placentation is this? Basal
What is a perfect flower? Flower with both androecium and gynacoecium
What is a staminate flower? Male flower
What is a carpellate flower? Female flowers
What is a monoeciuos plant? Has unisexual flowers but both sexes are on the same individuals
What is a dioecious plant? Have unisexual flowers on individual plants
What is a complete flower? Has all 4 whorls (Corolla, Calyx, Androecium, Gynoecium)
What is an incomplete flower? One or more whorls are absent
What is a connate flower? Flower with parts fused together
What is adnation? Whorls fused together
What is an actinomorphic flower? Flower with radial symmetry
What is a zigomorphic flower? Flower with bilateral symmetry
What is a hypogynous flower? Flower below the ovary
What is a perigynous flower? Flower surrounds ovary
What is an epigynous flower? Flower is over ovary
What is the exine pollen grain wall? The resistant outer wall composed to sporopollenin
What is the intine pollen grain wall? The inner wall composed of cellulose and pectin
What two cells make up the immature microgametophyte? The tube cell and the generative cell
What is microsporogenesis? Production of 1-celled microspores within microsporangia
What is microgametogenesis? Production of microgametophyte within microspore
What is an ovule? Microsporangium containing a single megaspore surrounded by an integument
How many divisions does it take to make an embryo sac from the megaspore? 3
Label this diagram
Label this diagram
What are the steps of pollination? 1. Pollen is captured on stigma and hydrated 2. Pollen germinates, pollen tube grows within style 3. Tube reaches ovule, enters through micropyle and reaches synergid cell
What are the steps of double fertilization? 1. Pollen tube penetrates synergid 2. First sperm nucleus fertilises the egg and creates zygote (2n) 3. Second sperm nucleus fertilises the central cell with 2 polar nuclei (this triple fusion makes primary endosperm)
What does the triploid central cell turn into? Endosperm, which provides food storage.
W Seed
What does the mature ovary become after fertilization? Fruit
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